Seismic Risk Assessment and Rehabilitation Method of Existing RCC Structures Using Micro Concrete

Jijing Yin, Debao Tang, Ting Chen, Yang Yang, Ling Ju, Yu Wan, Junpeng Ma, Xianqiang Yue


Aging reinforced concrete (RC) building structures typically experience more severe damage and are prone to collapse during earthquakes, constituting a primary factor in casualties and direct economic losses. To enhance the seismic performance of these old structures, this paper proposes a seismic risk assessment and a micro-concrete restoration method. It applies the process to an existing three-story reinforced concrete structure. A practical framework for mitigating structural vulnerabilities in seismic-prone regions was proposed. Then an as-built survey was conducted to create as-built architectural and structural drawings. Concrete core tests, ferroscans, and rebar tests were also performed. Based on field surveys and test data, nonlinear static and dynamic analyses have been used to evaluate structural safety. Concrete column jacketing was used to strengthen weak existing columns with micro-concrete. In assessing the structural response of retrofitted buildings, a comparison was made to their initial state. The comparison shows that applying concrete column jacketing with micro concrete can reduce other structural elements' demand capacity ratio (DCR), minimize maximum displacements, and enhance overall stiffness. The results indicate that the proposed method effectively evaluates the seismic risk of aging structures and enhances seismic resilience in existing buildings. Moreover, the application to the actual structure demonstrates that micro-concrete is highly durable and compatible with parent-concrete.


Doi: 10.28991/CEJ-2023-09-12-04

Full Text: PDF


Seismic Load; Lateral Load; RC Column Strengthening Technique; Drift and Deflection; Concrete Jacketing.


Souhaibou, A., & Li, L. zhi. (2023). A comparative study on the lateral displacement of a multi-story RC building under wind and earthquake load actions using base shear method and ETABS software. Materials Today: Proceedings, 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.matpr.2023.04.287.

Xu, J. G., Cao, X. Y., & Wu, G. (2023). Seismic collapse and reparability performance of reinforced concrete frames retrofitted with external PBSPC BRBF sub-frame in near-fault regions. Journal of Building Engineering, 64(1), 105–116. doi:10.1016/j.jobe.2022.105716.

Selim, M., Ibrahim, Y. E., & Emara, M. (2023). Seismic retrofitting of a deteriorated RC building. Case Studies in Construction Materials, 18, e01758. doi:10.1016/j.cscm.2022.e01758.

Wang, H., Sun, B., & Chen, H. (2022). Performance-based seismic evaluation and practical retrofit techniques for buildings in China. Earthquake and Structures, 22(5), 487–502. doi:10.12989/eas.2022.22.5.487.

Júlio, E. N. B. S., & Branco, F. A. B. (2008). Reinforced concrete jacketing - Interface influence on cyclic loading response. ACI Structural Journal, 105(4), 471–477. doi:10.14359/19861.

Formisano, A., Iaquinandi, A., & Mazzolani, F. M. (2015). Seismic retrofitting by FRP of a school building damaged by Emilia-Romagna earthquake. Key Engineering Materials, 624, 106–113. doi:10.4028/

Ramírez, J. L. (1996). Ten concrete column repair methods. Construction and Building Materials, 10(3), 195–202. doi:10.1016/0950-0618(95)00087-9.

Vandoros, K. G., & Dritsos, S. E. (2008). Concrete jacket construction detail effectiveness when strengthening RC columns. Construction and Building Materials, 22(3), 264–276. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2006.08.019.

Natraj, K., Kirthiga, R., & Elavenil, S. (2023). Structural performance of RCC building and strengthening the structural members with CFRP. Materials Today: Proceedings, 84, 24–32. doi:10.1016/j.matpr.2023.04.304.

Krainskyi, P., Blikharskiy, Z., & Khmil, R. (2015). Experimental Investigation of Reinforced Concrete Columns Strengthened by Jacketing. Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology, 2(7), 3159–3199.

Hong, S. G., Lee, J. H., Choi, Y., & Gu, I. Y. (2021). Seismic strengthening of concrete columns by ultrahigh-performance fiber-reinforced concrete jacketing. Journal of Structural Engineering, 147(10), 04021157. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0003111.

Antoniou, S. (2023). Seismic Retrofit of Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings. Seismic Retrofit of Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings. John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, United States. doi:10.1002/9781119987352.

Zhang, Y., Deng, M., Li, T., & Dong, Z. (2021). Strengthening of flexure-dominate RC columns with ECC jackets: Experiment and analysis. Engineering Structures, 231, 801–809. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2020.111809.

Barham, W. S., Irshidat, M. R., & Awawdeh, A. (2021). Repair of Heat-Damaged RC Beams Using Micro-concrete Modified with Carbon Nanotubes. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 25(7), 2534–2543. doi:10.1007/s12205-021-0904-1.

Nayak, D. R., Pattnaik, R. R., & Panda, B. C. (2022). Effect of shrinkage on slant shear and flexure bond strength of cement based micro-concrete for durable concrete repair. Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation, 7(1), 23. doi:10.1007/s41024-021-00161-y.

Lu, W. T., & Phillips, B. M. (2022). A fundamental-period-preserving seismic retrofit methodology for low-rise buildings with supplemental inerters. Engineering Structures, 266, 114–583. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2022.114583.

Pugliese, F., & Di Sarno, L. (2022). Probabilistic structural performance of RC frames with corroded smooth bars subjected to near- and far-field ground motions. Journal of Building Engineering, 49, 104008. doi:10.1016/j.jobe.2022.104008.

Du, K., Cheng, F., Bai, J., & Jin, S. (2020). Seismic performance quantification of buckling-restrained braced RC frame structures under near-fault ground motions. Engineering Structures, 211, 110447. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2020.110447.

Sayed, A. M., Rashwan, M. M., & Helmy, M. E. (2020). Experimental behavior of cracked reinforced concrete columns strengthened with reinforced concrete jacketing. Materials, 13(12), 1–14. doi:10.3390/ma13122832.

Kim, S. W., Han, D. S., & Kim, K. H. (2021). Evaluation of shear effect on deflection of RC beams. Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 11(16), 7690. doi:10.3390/app11167690.

ACI-318. (2019). Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary. American Concrete Institute, Indiana, United States. doi:10.14359/51716937.

Yuan, M., Tuken, A., & Sezen, H. (2019). A simplified method for evaluation of seismic displacement of reinforced concrete frame buildings. Journal of Structural Integrity and Maintenance, 4(2), 51–57. doi:10.1080/24705314.2019.1603190.

Hassan, A., & Pal, S. (2018). Effect of soil condition on seismic response of isolated base buildings. International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering, 10(3), 249–261. doi:10.1007/s40091-018-0195-z.

Ghobarah, A. (2001). Performance-based design in earthquake engineering: State of development. Engineering Structures, 23(8), 878–884. doi:10.1016/S0141-0296(01)00036-0.

Lee, C. S., & Jeon, J. S. (2022). Drift limit state predictions of rectangular reinforced concrete columns with superelastic shape memory alloy rebars. Journal of Building Engineering, 54, 104546. doi:10.1016/j.jobe.2022.104546.

Singh, L., Singh, H., & Kaur, I. (2023). Nonlinear time history analysis on irregular RC building on sloping ground. Innovative Infrastructure Solutions, 8(2), 1–11. doi:10.1007/s41062-023-01049-1.

Wu, S., He, H., Cheng, S., & Chen, Y. (2021). Story stiffness optimization of frame subjected to earthquake under uniform displacement criterion. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 63(3), 1533–1546. doi:10.1007/s00158-020-02761-7.

Habib, A., Yildirim, U., & Eren, O. (2020). Column repair and strengthening using RC jacketing: a brief state-of-the-art review. Innovative Infrastructure Solutions, 5(3), 75. doi:10.1007/s41062-020-00329-4.

Woodson, R. D. (2009). Concrete Structures: Protection, Repair and Rehabilitation. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Minafò, G. (2015). A practical approach for the strength evaluation of RC columns reinforced with RC jackets. Engineering Structures, 85, 162–169. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2014.12.025.

Campione, G., Fossetti, M., Giacchino, C., & Minafò, G. (2014). RC columns externally strengthened with RC jackets. Materials and Structures/Materiaux et Constructions, 47(10), 1715–1728. doi:10.1617/s11527-013-0146-x.

Raza, S., Khan, M. K. I., Menegon, S. J., Tsang, H. H., & Wilson, J. L. (2019). Strengthening and repair of reinforced concrete columns by jacketing: State-of-the-art review. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(11), 3208. doi:10.3390/su11113208.

Lehman, D. E., Gookin, S. E., Nacamull, A. M., & Moehle, J. P. (2001). Repair of earthquake-damaged bridge columns. ACI Structural Journal, 98(2), 233–242. doi:10.14359/10192.

Lampropoulos, A. P. (2014). Strengthening Techniques: Code-Deficient R/C Buildings. Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering, 1–23. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-36197-5_206-1.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/CEJ-2023-09-12-04


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Jijing Yin, Debao Tang, Ting Chen, Yang Yang, ling Ju, Yu Wan, Junpeng Ma, Xianqiang Yue

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.