Assessing the Self-Report Instruments of Younger Versus Older Riders Involved in Near-Miss Motorcycle Incidents

Natthaporn Hantanong, Sajjakaj Jomnonkwao, Thanapong Champahom, Chamroeun Se, Vatanavongs Ratanavaraha


Road accidents pose severe and pervasive consequences, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where both the population and fatal accidents among youth and the elderly are steadily increasing. Therefore, this study aims to develop a model for risky behavior in near-miss incidents among motorcycle riders in Thailand. It intends to compare models between younger and older riders utilizing structural equation modeling (SEM) with a multi-group approach. The data were examined employing modified instruments derived from the Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire (MRBQ). Samples depicting risky riding behavior were obtained from both younger and older rider groups. Parameter invariance testing revealed differences between the two groups. Control errors notably emerged as the predominant factor contributing to near-miss incidents for both age groups. Speeding was identified as the primary concern for the younger group, while adverse weather conditions were deemed crucial for the older group. Based on this study, policy recommendations endorse the creation of targeted training programs for novice riders, emphasizing adherence to legal speed limits and the adoption of safe riding practices. Additionally, the study underscores the importance of preparing riders, especially those in the older age group, for adverse weather conditions.


Doi: 10.28991/CEJ-2024-010-02-019

Full Text: PDF


PTW Rider; Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs); Road Traffic Safety; Age Difference; Multi-group SEM.


WHO. (2018). Global Status Report on Road Safety. World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland. Available online: (accessed on January 2024).

Inada, H., Li, Q., Bachani, A., & Hyder, A. A. (2020). Forecasting global road traffic injury mortality for 2030. Injury Prevention, 26(4), 339–343. doi:10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043336.

Department of Land Transport. (2021). Number of registered motorcycles in Thailand. Department of Land Transport, Bangkok, Thailand. Available online: (accessed on December 2023). (In Thai).

Liao, Y., Lin, C. Y., & Park, J. H. (2019). Is motorcycle use associated with unhealthy lifestyles? Findings from Taiwan. Journal of Transport & Health, 15, 100659. doi:10.1016/j.jth.2019.100659.

Fitzpatrick, D., & O’Neill, D. (2017). The older motorcyclist. European Geriatric Medicine, 8(1), 10–15. doi:10.1016/j.eurger.2016.10.004.

ThaiRoads Foundation. (2022). Key fact on road safety situations in Thailand 2018-2021. Road Safety Thailand Road Safety Policy Foundation, Thailand. Available online: ((accessed on January 2024).

Huang, P., & Winston, F. K. (2011). Young Drivers. Handbook of Traffic Psychology, 315–338, Academic Press, Cambridge, United States. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-381984-0.10023-2.

Gershon, P., Ehsani, J. P., Zhu, C., Sita, K. R., Klauer, S., Dingus, T., & Simons-Morton, B. (2018). Crash Risk and Risky Driving Behavior among Adolescents during Learner and Independent Driving Periods. Journal of Adolescent Health, 63(5), 568–574. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2018.04.012.

Walshe, E. A., McIntosh, C. W., Romer, D., & Winston, F. K. (2017). Executive function capacities, negative driving behavior and crashes in young drivers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(11), 1314. doi:10.3390/ijerph14111314.

Banz, B. C., Fell, J. C., & Vaca, F. E. (2019). Focus: death: complexities of young driver injury and fatal motor vehicle crashes. The Yale journal of biology and medicine, 92(4), 725.

WHO. (2023). Thailand’s leadership and innovations towards healthy ageing. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Available online: (accessed on December 2023).

Tan, M. P. (2022). Healthcare for older people in lower- and middle-income countries. Age and Ageing, 51(4), 16. doi:10.1093/ageing/afac016.

Azami-Aghdash, S., Aghaei, M. H., & Sadeghi-Bazarghani, H. (2018). Epidemiology of Road Traffic Injuries among Elderly People; A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma, 6(4), 279–291. doi:10.29252/beat-060403.

Yee, W. Y., Cameron, P. A., & Bailey, M. J. (2006). Road traffic injuries in the elderly. Emergency Medicine Journal, 23(1), 42–46. doi:10.1136/emj.2005.023754.

Lam, C., Pai, C. W., Chuang, C. C., Yen, Y. C., Wu, C. C., Yu, S. H., Hung, K. S., & Chiu, W. T. (2019). Rider factors associated with severe injury after a light motorcycle crash: A multicentre study in an emerging economy setting. PLoS ONE, 14(6), 219132. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0219132.

Freund, B., & Smith, P. (2011). Older Drivers. Handbook of Traffic Psychology, 339–351, Academic Press, Cambridge, United States. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-381984-0.10024-4.

Etehad, H., Yousefzadeh-Chabok, S., Davoudi-Kiakalaye, A., Moghadam, D. A., Hemati, H., & Mohtasham-Amiri, Z. (2015). Impact of road traffic accidents on the elderly. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 61(3), 489–493. doi:10.1016/j.archger.2015.08.008.

Young, W., Sobhani, A., Lenné, M. G., & Sarvi, M. (2014). Simulation of safety: A review of the state of the art in road safety simulation modelling. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 66, 89–103. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2014.01.008.

Sanders, R. L. (2015). Perceived traffic risk for cyclists: The impact of near miss and collision experiences. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 75, 26–34. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2014.11.004.

Aldred, R., & Crosweller, S. (2015). Investigating the rates and impacts of near misses and related incidents among UK cyclists. Journal of Transport and Health, 2(3), 379–393. doi:10.1016/j.jth.2015.05.006.

Cho, G., Rodríguez, D. A., & Khattak, A. J. (2009). The role of the built environment in explaining relationships between perceived and actual pedestrian and bicyclist safety. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 41(4), 692–702. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2009.03.008.

Zheng, L., Ismail, K., & Meng, X. (2014). Traffic conflict techniques for road safety analysis: Open questions and some insights. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 41(7), 633–641. doi:10.1139/cjce-2013-0558.

Chen, P., Zeng, W., Yu, G., & Wang, Y. (2017). Surrogate Safety Analysis of Pedestrian-Vehicle Conflict at Intersections Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Videos. Journal of Advanced Transportation, 2017. doi:10.1155/2017/5202150.

Wright, L., & Van Der Schaaf, T. (2004). Accident versus near miss causation: A critical review of the literature, an empirical test in the UK railway domain, and their implications for other sectors. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 111(1–3), 105–110. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2004.02.049.

Park, J. Il, Kim, S., & Kim, J. K. (2023). Exploring spatial associations between near-miss and police-reported crashes: The Heinrich’s law in traffic safety. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 19, 100830. doi:10.1016/j.trip.2023.100830.

Jehring, J., & Heinrich, H. W. (1951). Industrial Accident Prevention: A Scientific Approach. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 4(4), 609. doi:10.2307/2518508.

Awolusi, I., & Marks, E. (2015). Near-miss reporting to enhance safety in the steel industry. Iron Steel Technol, 12(10), 62-68.

Aldred, R. (2012). Governing transport from welfare state to hollow state: The case of cycling in the UK. Transport Policy, 23, 95–102. doi:10.1016/j.tranpol.2012.05.012.

Marín Puchades, V., Fassina, F., Fraboni, F., De Angelis, M., Prati, G., de Waard, D., & Pietrantoni, L. (2018). The role of perceived competence and risk perception in cycling near misses. Safety Science, 105, 167–177. doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2018.02.013.

Matsui, Y., Hitosugi, M., Doi, T., Oikawa, S., Takahashi, K., & Ando, K. (2013). Features of Pedestrian Behavior in Car-to-Pedestrian Contact Situations in Near-Miss Incidents in Japan. Traffic Injury Prevention, 14(SUPPL1), 58– 63. doi:10.1080/15389588.2013.796372.

Elliott, M. A., Baughan, C. J., & Sexton, B. F. (2007). Errors and violations in relation to motorcyclists’ crash risk. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 39(3), 491–499. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2006.08.012.

Reason, J., Manstead, A., Stephen, S., Baxter, J., & Campbell, K. (1990). Errors and violations on the roads: A real distinction? Ergonomics, 33(10–11), 1315–1332. doi:10.1080/00140139008925335.

Steg, L., & Brussel, A. van. (2009). Accidents, aberrant behaviours, and speeding of young moped riders. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 12(6), 503–511. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2009.09.001.

Sakashita, C., Senserrick, T., Lo, S., Boufous, S., De Rome, L., & Ivers, R. (2014). The Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire: Psychometric properties and application amongst novice riders in Australia. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 22, 126–139. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2013.10.005.

Topolšek, D., & Dragan, D. (2018). Relationships between the motorcyclists’ behavioural perception and their actual behaviour. Transport, 33(1), 151–164. doi:10.3846/16484142.2016.1141371.

Stephens, A. N., Brown, J., de Rome, L., Baldock, M. R. J., Fernandes, R., & Fitzharris, M. (2017). The relationship between Motorcycle Rider Behaviour Questionnaire scores and crashes for riders in Australia. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 102, 202–212. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.007.

Motevalian, S. A., Asadi-Lari, M., Rahimi, H., & Eftekhar, M. (2011). Validation of a Persian version of motorcycle rider behavior questionnaire. Annals of advances in automotive medicine/annual scientific conference, Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, Chicago, United States.

Özkan, T., Lajunen, T., Dogruyol, B., Yildirim, Z., & Çoymak, A. (2012). Motorcycle accidents, rider behaviour, and psychological models. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 49, 124–132. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2011.03.009.

Sunday, O. K. (2010). The performance of the motorcycle rider behaviour questionnaire among commercial motorcycle riders in Nigeria. Injury Prevention, 16(Supplement 1), A194–A194. doi:10.1136/ip.2010.029215.691.

Trung Bui, H., Saadi, I., & Cools, M. (2020). Investigating on-road crash risk and traffic offences in Vietnam using the motorcycle rider behaviour questionnaire (MRBQ). Safety Science, 130, 104868. doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2020.104868.

Uttra, S., Jomnonkwao, S., Watthanaklang, D., & Ratanavaraha, V. (2020). Development of self-assessment indicators for motorcycle riders in Thailand: Application of the motorcycle rider behavior questionnaire (MRBQ). Sustainability, 12(7), 2785. doi:10.3390/su12072785.

Chouhan, S. S., Kathuria, A., & Sekhar, C. R. (2021). Examining risky riding behavior in India using Motorcycle rider behavior questionnaire. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 160, 106312. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2021.106312.

Sumit, K., Ross, V., Brijs, K., Wets, G., & Ruiter, R. A. C. (2021). Risky motorcycle riding behaviour among young riders in Manipal, India. BMC Public Health, 21(1), 1954. doi:10.1186/s12889-021-11899-y.

Ospina-Mateus, H., Jiménez, L. Q., & López-Valdés, F. J. (2021). The rider behavior questionnaire to explore associations of motorcycle taxi crashes in Cartagena (Colombia). Traffic Injury Prevention, 22(sup1), S99–S103. doi:10.1080/15389588.2021.1970749.

Jomnonkwao, S., Hantanong, N., Champahom, T., Se, C., & Ratanavaraha, V. (2023). Analyzing Near-Miss Incidents and Risky Riding Behavior in Thailand: A Comparative Study of Urban and Rural Areas. Safety, 9(4), 90. doi:10.3390/safety9040090.

Möller, H., Senserrick, T., Rogers, K., Sakashita, C., de Rome, L., Boufous, S., Davey, C., Cullen, P., & Ivers, R. (2020). Crash risk factors for novice motorcycle riders. Journal of Safety Research, 73, 93–101. doi:10.1016/j.jsr.2020.02.003.

Alnawmasi, N., & Mannering, F. (2019). A statistical assessment of temporal instability in the factors determining motorcyclist injury severities. Analytic Methods in Accident Research, 22, 100090. doi:10.1016/j.amar.2019.100090.

Ashie, A., Wilhelm, A., Carney, D., DiPasquale, T., & Bush, C. (2018). Comparing fracture patterns of younger versus older riders involved in nonfatal motorcycle accidents. Traffic Injury Prevention, 19(7), 761–765. doi:10.1080/15389588.2018.1494384.

Chen, S. J., Chen, C. Y., & Lin, M. R. (2018). Risk factors for crash involvement in older motorcycle riders. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 111, 109–114. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2017.11.006.

Taubman-Ben-Ari, O., Mikulincer, M., & Gillath, O. (2004). The multidimensional driving style inventory - Scale construct and validation. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 36(3), 323–332. doi:10.1016/S0001-4575(03)00010-1.

Bina, M., Graziano, F., & Bonino, S. (2006). Risky driving and lifestyles in adolescence. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 38(3), 472–481. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2005.11.003.

Forward, S. E. (2010). Intention to speed in a rural area: Reasoned but not reasonable. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 13(4), 223–232. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2010.04.002.

Chan, E., Pradhan, A. K., Pollatsek, A., Knodler, M. A., & Fisher, D. L. (2010). Are driving simulators effective tools for evaluating novice drivers’ hazard anticipation, speed management, and attention maintenance skills? Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 13(5), 343–353. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2010.04.001.

Chung, Y. S., & Wong, J. T. (2012). Beyond general behavioral theories: Structural discrepancy in young motorcyclist’s risky driving behavior and its policy implications. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 49, 165–176. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2011.04.021.

Golob, T. F. (2003). Structural equation modeling for travel behavior research. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 37(1). doi:10.1016/S0191-2615(01)00046-7.

Finch, W. H. (2013). Exploratory Factor Analysis. Handbook of Quantitative Methods for Educational Research. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, Netherlands. doi:10.1007/978-94-6209-404-8_8.

Jöreskog, K. G., Olsson, U. H., & Y. Wallentin, F. (2016). Multivariate Analysis with LISREL. In Springer Series in Statistics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-33153-9.

Hair, J., Hair Jr, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Gudergan, S. P. (2023). Advanced issues in partial least squares structural equation modeling. SAGE publications, Thousand Oaks, United States.

Hair Jnr, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th Ed.). Pearson, London, United Kingdom.

Saliya, C. A. (2022). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). In: Doing Social Research and Publishing Results. Springer, Singapore. doi:10.1007/978-981-19-3780-4_13.

Kline, R. B. (2023). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford publications, New York, United States.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1–55. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118.

Steiger, J. H. (2007). Understanding the limitations of global fit assessment in structural equation modeling. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(5), 893–898. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2006.09.017.

Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland.

Jomnonkwao, S., Sangphong, O., Khampirat, B., Siridhara, S., & Ratanavaraha, V. (2016). Public transport promotion policy on campus: evidence from Suranaree University in Thailand. Public Transport, 8(2), 185–203. doi:10.1007/s12469-016-0122-2.

Maskey, R., Fei, J., & Nguyen, H. O. (2018). Use of exploratory factor analysis in maritime research. Asian Journal of Shipping and Logistics, 34(2), 91–111. doi:10.1016/j.ajsl.2018.06.006.

Stavroulakis, P. J., Papadimitriou, S., Tsioumas, V., Koliousis, I. G., Riza, E., & Tsirikou, F. (2020). Exploratory spatial analysis of maritime clusters. Marine Policy, 120, 104125. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2020.104125.

Taber, K. S. (2018). The Use of Cronbach’s Alpha When Developing and Reporting Research Instruments in Science Education. Research in Science Education, 48(6), 1273–1296. doi:10.1007/s11165-016-9602-2.

Lam, L. W. (2012). Impact of competitiveness on salespeople’s commitment and performance. Journal of Business Research, 65(9), 1328–1334. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.10.026.

Champahom, T., Jomnonkwao, S., Thotongkam, W., Jongkol, P., Rodpon, P., & Ratanavaraha, V. (2023). Investigating Parents’ Attitudes towards the Use of Child Restraint Systems by Comparing Non-Users and User Parents. Sustainability (Switzerland), 15(4), 2896. doi:10.3390/su15042896.

Michael, R., Sharma, M., Mehrotra, S., Banu, H., Kumar, R., Sudhir, P., & Chakrabarthy, N. (2014). Inclination to speeding and its correlates among two-wheeler riding Indian youth. Industrial Psychiatry Journal, 23(2), 105. doi:10.4103/0972-6748.151676.

Parker, D., Lajunen, T., & Stradling, S. (1998). Attitudinal predictors of interpersonally aggressive violations on the road. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 1(1), 11–24. doi:10.1016/S1369-8478(98)00002-3.

Mohammadpour, S. I., Nassiri, H., & Sullman, M. J. M. (2022). Validation of the Driver’s Angry Thoughts Questionnaire (DATQ) in a sample of professional drivers in Iran. IATSS Research, 46(3), 370–379. doi:10.1016/j.iatssr.2022.04.002.

NHTSA. (2021). Distracted Driving. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, United States. Available online: (accessed on January 2024).

Collet, C., Guillot, A., & Petit, C. (2010). Phoning while driving I: A review of epidemiological, psychological, behavioural and physiological studies. Ergonomics, 53(5), 589–601. doi:10.1080/00140131003672023.

Pérez-Núñez, R., Hidalgo-Solórzano, E., Vera-López, J. D., Lunnen, J. C., Chandran, A., Híjar, M., & Hyder, A. A. (2014). The Prevalence of Mobile Phone Use among Motorcyclists in Three Mexican Cities. Traffic Injury Prevention, 15(2), 148–150. doi:10.1080/15389588.2013.802776.

Truong, L. T., Nguyen, H. T. T., & De Gruyter, C. (2018). Correlations between mobile phone use and other risky behaviours while riding a motorcycle. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 118, 125–130. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2018.06.015.

Hassan, T., Vinodkumar, M. N., & Vinod, N. (2017). Influence of demographics on risky driving behaviour among powered two wheeler riders in Kerala, India. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 46, 24–33. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2016.11.008.

Roehler, D. R., Ear, C., Parker, E. M., Sem, P., & Ballesteros, M. F. (2015). Fatal motorcycle crashes: a growing public health problem in Cambodia. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 22(2), 165–171. doi:10.1080/17457300.2013.876050.

Dapilah, F., Guba, B. Y., & Owusu-Sekyere, E. (2017). Motorcyclist characteristics and traffic behaviour in urban Northern Ghana: Implications for road traffic accidents. Journal of Transport and Health, 4, 237–245. doi:10.1016/j.jth.2016.03.001.

Patrick, M. E., Graupensperger, S., Dworkin, E. R., Duckworth, J. C., Abdallah, D. A., & Lee, C. M. (2021). Intoxicated driving and riding with impaired drivers: Comparing days with alcohol, marijuana, and simultaneous use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 225, 108753. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.108753.

Wiratama, B. S., Chen, P. L., Ma, S. T., Chen, Y. H., Saleh, W., Lin, H. A., & Pai, C. W. (2020). Evaluating the combined effect of alcohol-involved and un-helmeted riding on motorcyclist fatalities in Taiwan. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 143, 105594. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2020.105594.

Centola, C., Tagliabue, M., Spoto, A., Palpacelli, M., Giorgetti, A., Giorgetti, R., & Vidotto, G. (2020). Enhancement of unsafe behaviors in simulated moped-riding performance under the influence of low dose of alcohol. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 136, 105409. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2019.105409.

Mehdizadeh, M., Nordfjaern, T., & Klöckner, C. A. (2023). Drunk or Sober? Number of alcohol units perceived to be safe before riding e-scooter. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 181, 106930. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2022.106930.

Kumar Yadav, A., & Velaga, N. R. (2021). A comprehensive systematic review of the laboratory-based research investigating the influence of alcohol on driving behaviour. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 81, 557–585. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2021.07.010.

MOPH. (2021). Injury Data Collaboration Center (IDCC). Accident and Emergency, Injury surveillance, Thailand. Available online: (accessed on December 2023).

Zamani-Alavijeh, F., Bazargan, M., Shafiei, A., & Bazargan-Hejazi, S. (2011). The frequency and predictors of helmet use among Iranian motorcyclists: A quantitative and qualitative study. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43(4), 1562–1569. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2011.03.016.

Ackaah, W., & Afukaar, F. K. (2010). Prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle users in tamale metropolis, Ghana: An observational study. Traffic Injury Prevention, 11(5), 522–525. doi:10.1080/15389588.2010.489198.

Fletcher, C., McDowell, D., Thompson, C., & James, K. (2019). Helmet use among motorcycle accident victims in the north-east region of Jamaica. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 26(4), 399–404. doi:10.1080/17457300.2019.1653931.

D’Elia, A., & Newstead, S. (2023). Evaluation of the effectiveness of daytime running lights (DRLs). Journal of Safety Research, 85, 95–100. doi:10.1016/j.jsr.2023.01.009.

Davoodi, S. R., & Hossayni, S. M. (2015). Role of motorcycle running lights in reducing motorcycle crashes during daytime; a review of the current literature. Bulletin of Emergency & Trauma, 3(3), 73.

Ivanišević, T., Ivković, I., Čičević, S., Trifunović, A., Pešić, D., Vukšić, V., & Simović, S. (2022). The impact of daytime running (LED) lights on motorcycles speed estimation: A driving simulator study. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 90, 47–57. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2022.08.002.

Lee, Y. M., & Sheppard, E. (2018). The effect of lighting conditions and use of headlights on drivers’ perception and appraisal of approaching vehicles at junctions. Ergonomics, 61(3), 444–455. doi:10.1080/00140139.2017.1364790.

Maulina, D., Irwanda, D. Y., Siregar, E. S., & Santoso, G. A. (2023). Motorcyclists’ risky riding scripts: Schematic representations of error and violation behavior. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 97, 347-366. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2023.07.015.

Susilo, Y. O., Joewono, T. B., & Vandebona, U. (2015). Reasons underlying behaviour of motorcyclists disregarding traffic regulations in urban areas of Indonesia. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 75, 272–284. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2014.12.016.

Chen, P. L., Chen, Y. C., & Pai, C. W. (2018). Motorcyclist Is the Right-of-Way Violator: A Population-Based Study of Motorcycle Right-of-Way Crash in Taiwan. Journal of Advanced Transportation, 9543787. doi:10.1155/2018/9543787.

Luu, L. Van, Minh, C. C., & Long, N. X. (2021). The development of safe riding guidelines for young riders – A case study of Phu Yen, Vietnam. IATSS Research, 45(2), 226–233. doi:10.1016/j.iatssr.2020.11.001.

Wan, Y., Li, Y., Liu, C., & Li, Z. (2020). Is traffic accident related to air pollution? A case report from an island of Taihu Lake, China. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 11(5), 1028–1033. doi:10.1016/j.apr.2020.02.018.

Nguyen, D. V. M., Vu, A. T., Ross, V., Brijs, T., Wets, G., & Brijs, K. (2022). Small-displacement motorcycle crashes and risky ridership in Vietnam: Findings from a focus group and in-depth interview study. Safety Science, 152, 105514. doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2021.105514.

Jomnonkwao, S., Champahom, T., Se, C., Hantanong, N., & Ratanavaraha, V. (2023). Contributing factors to near-miss experiences of motorcyclists in Thailand: A random parameter probit model approach. Heliyon, 9(12), 22625. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e22625.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/CEJ-2024-010-02-019


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Natthaporn Hantanong, Sajjakaj Jomnonkwao, Thanapong Champahom, Chamroeun Se, Vatanavongs Ratanavaraha

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.