Strengths of Struts and Nodal Zones for Strut-and-Tie Model Design of Reinforced Concrete Corbels
The strut-and-tie model (STM) method is useful for the limit state design of reinforced concrete (RC) corbels. However, for the rational design of RC corbels, designers must accurately determine the strengths of concrete struts and nodal zones to check the strength conditions of a selected STM and the anchorage of reinforcing bars in nodal zones. In this study, the authors suggested a numerical process for determining the strengths of concrete struts and nodal zones in RC corbel STMs. The technique incorporates the state of two-dimensional (2-D) stresses at the strut and nodal zone locations, 2-D failure envelope of concrete, deviation angle between the strut orientation and compressive principal stress trajectory, and the effect of concrete confinement by reinforcing bars. The authors also proposed the strength equations of struts and nodal zones that apply to the typical determinate and indeterminate STMs of RC corbels. The authors considered the effects of the shear span-to-effective depth ratio, the horizontal-to-vertical load ratio, and the primary tensile and horizontal shear reinforcement ratios in developing the strength equations. The authors predicted the failure strengths of 391 RC corbels tested to examine the appropriateness of the proposed numerical process and strength equations. The predicted failure strength compares very well with experimental results, proving that the rational analysis and design of RC corbels are possible by using the present study's strut and nodal zone strengths.
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