Seismic Performance of Clay Bricks Construction
The extensive use of masonry construction accompanied by the seismic hazard in Iraq requires comprehensive studies to assess the seismic performance of such construction. This study aims to evaluate the seismic performance of URM and CM buildings by their nonlinear time-history responses. ANSYS 18.2 software has been used to perform the nonlinear dynamic analyses. The mechanical properties have been investigated as the first step of the study. A simple mechanical instrument was improvised to determine the tensile strength of masonry directly. Ground motions were chosen in a manner so that their peak ground accelerations and site soils are as similar as possible to those in the South of Iraq. The computer software terminated all the analyses before the ends of the applied earthquake duration because of the solutions did not converge. In the numerical models, severe cracks have been observed in both URM and CM models, indicating their unsafe seismic performance. The minor cracks in confining concrete in the CM model compared to the severe ones in the masonry walls of the same model show the capability of the confinement to prevent the disintegration of collapsed masonry walls, at least in damaging cases like the building state at the solution termination.
Zimmermann, Thomas, and Alfred Strauss. "Masonry and Earthquakes: Material properties, Experimental testing and Design approaches." Earthquake-Resistant Structures: Design, Assessment and Rehabilitation (2012): 177.
Al-Chaar, Ghassan K., Steven C. Sweeney, Jonathan C. Trovillion, Orange S. Marshall, and Brendan Danielson. Pseudo Dynamic Testing and Seismic Rehabilitation of Iraqi Brick, Bearing and Shear Walls. No. ERDC/CERL-TR-08-6. Army Engineer District Los Angeles CA, 2008.
Yaseen, Abdulhameed Abdullah. "Seismic Fragility Assessment of Masonry Buildings in the Kurdistan Region." PhD diss., University of Portsmouth, 2015.
Abdulla, Kurdo F., Lee S. Cunningham, and Martin Gillie. “Simulating Masonry Wall Behaviour Using a Simplified Micro-Model Approach.” Engineering Structures 151 (November 2017): 349–365. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2017.08.021.
Chácara, César, Francesco Cannizzaro, Bartolomeo Pantò, Ivo Caliò, and Paulo B. Lourenço. “Assessment of the Dynamic Response of Unreinforced Masonry Structures Using a Macroelement Modeling Approach.” Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics (July 6, 2018). doi:10.1002/eqe.3091.
Kallioras, Stylianos, Gabriele Guerrini, Umberto Tomassetti, Beatrice Marchesi, Andrea Penna, Francesco Graziotti, and Guido Magenes. “Experimental Seismic Performance of a Full-Scale Unreinforced Clay-Masonry Building with Flexible Timber Diaphragms.” Engineering Structures 161 (April 2018): 231–249. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2018.02.016.
Avila, Leonardo, Graça Vasconcelos, and Paulo B. Lourenço. “Experimental Seismic Performance Assessment of Asymmetric Masonry Buildings.” Engineering Structures 155 (January 2018): 298–314. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2017.10.059.
Shakarami, B., M. Z. Kabir, and R. Sistani Nezhad. "Parametric Study on Confined Masonry Walls Subjected to In-plane Cyclic Loading Through Numerical Modeling." AUT Journal of Civil Engineering 2, no. 1 (2018): 49-58. doi: 10.22060/ajce.2018.12560.5257.
Erberik, Murat Altug, Cihan Citiloglu, and Gulden Erkoseoglu. “Seismic Performance Assessment of Confined Masonry Construction at Component and Structure Levels.” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 17, no. 2 (September 8, 2018): 867–889. doi:10.1007/s10518-018-0468-8.
Cazarin E.F.E. and A. Teran-Glimore. “Seismic Performance of Confined Masonry Buildings Designed with the Mexico City Building Code. The thirteen North American Masonry Conference.” June 16-19, 2019. Salt Lake City, UT, USA. Available online: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333907513.
Dong, Sui, Jiang, and Zhou. “Experimental Study on Seismic Behavior of Masonry Walls Strengthened by Reinforced Mortar Cross Strips.” Sustainability 11, no. 18 (September 5, 2019): 4866. doi:10.3390/su11184866.
Ismail, Najif, and Nouman Khattak. “Observed Failure Modes of Unreinforced Masonry Buildings During the 2015 Hindu Kush Earthquake.” Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration 18, no. 2 (April 2019): 301–314. doi:10.1007/s11803-019-0505-x.
Sorrentino, Luigi, Serena Cattari, Francesca da Porto, Guido Magenes, and Andrea Penna. “Seismic Behaviour of Ordinary Masonry Buildings During the 2016 Central Italy Earthquakes.” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 17, no. 10 (April 24, 2018): 5583–5607. doi:10.1007/s10518-018-0370-4.
Kaushik, Hemant B., Durgesh C. Rai, and Sudhir K. Jain. "Stress-strain characteristics of clay brick masonry under uniaxial compression." Journal of materials in Civil Engineering 19, no. 9 (2007): 728-739. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(2007)19:9(728).
M. S. J. Committee, “Building Code Requirements and Specification for Masonry Structures: Containing Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (TMS 402-11/ACI 530-11/ASCE 5-11).” Specification for Masonry Structures (TMS 602-11/ACI 530.1-11/ASCE 6-11).
British Standard. "Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures." British Standard Institution. London (2005).
A. S. o. C. Engineers, “Prestandard and Commentary for The Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings.” FEMA, 2000. Available online: https://www.nehrp.gov/pdf/fema356.pdf.
Kohnke, Peter. "ANSYS Mechanical APDL Theory Reference." Canonsburg, PA, USA: ANSYS Inc (2013).
Onur, Tuna, Rengin Gok, Wathiq Abdulnaby, Ammar M. Shakir, Hanan Mahdi, Nazar M.S. Numan, Haydar Al-Shukri, Hussein K. Chlaib, Taher H. Ameen, and Najah A. Abd. “Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Iraq” (May 6, 2016). doi:10.2172/1305883.
Mohammed, Qassun Sa'ad Al-Deen, and Murtadha A. Abdulrassol. "Database of dynamic soil properties for most Iraq soils." American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 37, no. 1 (2017): 230-254.
A. Aldemir, “A Simple Seismic Performance Assessment Technique for Unreinforced Brick Masonry Structures.” Master's Thesis, Middle East Technical University Civil Engineering Department, Ankara, Turkey, 2010.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2020 Jabbar Abdalaali Kadhim
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.