Environmental and Economic Analysis of Selected Pavement Preservation Treatments
Pavements are one of the highest assets and represent massive investment. The need to design and provide a sustainable maintenance service is becoming a priority and this comes mutually with the intentions to reduce impacts caused by maintenance treatments to the environment. This paper through a case study presents a Life Cycle Cost and Assessment technique during a 30 year analysis period to measure the cost effectiveness, embodied energy and carbon emissions of selected preservation treatments. These treatments can either be applied separately or in combination during the preventive maintenance of road pavements. This study entails three life cycle phases of material extraction and production, transportation and construction of maintenance activities. Through a literature review, raw materials energy and emission inventory data was averaged followed by the analysis of the equipment involved by using the specific fuel consumption to calculate the energy and emissions spent by the machine and finally the selected treatment energy and emissions was computed. Results show that preservation treatments can have an LCC of 30-40 % and embodied energy and carbon emission of 3-6 times lower than the traditional approach. This study bridges gaps in literature on integrated evaluation of environmental and economic aspects of preservation treatments.
RDA, “Road Development Agency Annual Report,” 2014. Available online: https://www.rda.org.zm/index.php/media-centre/reports/annual-reports (accessed on 1 May 2019).
RDA, “Road Development Agency Road Maintenance Strategy (2014 to 2024),” 2014. Available online: https://www.rda.org.zm/index.php/media-centre/downloads (accessed on 15 October 2019).
RDA, “Road Development Agency Maintenance Needs Report on the Core Road Network,” 2012. Available online: https://www.rda.org.zm/index.php/media-centre/reports/annual-reports (accessed on 1 May 2019).
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), “Pavement Preservation Concepts and Techniques.” Report No. FHWA-RC-BAL-04-0015, Federal Highway Administration, USDOT, 2004. Available online: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/preservation/ (accessed on 23 July 2019).
Mamlouk, M. S., and J. P. Zaniewski. “Pavement Preventive Maintenance: Description, Effectiveness, and Treatments,” American Society for Testing and Materials, 1998, pp. 121–135. doi:10.1520/stp12856s.
Labi, S., and K. C. Sinha. “Life-Cycle Evaluation of Flexible Pavement Preventive Maintenance,” J. Transp. Eng., vol. 131, no. 10, 2005, pp. 744–751. doi:10.1061/(asce)0733-947x(2005)131:10(744).
Galehouse, L., J. S. Moulthrop, and R. G. Hicks. “Principles of Pavement Preservation: Definitions, Benefits, Issues and Barriers,” TR News 228, 2003, pp. 4–9.
Wu, Z., J. L. Groeger, A. L. Simpson, and R. G. Hicks, “Performance Evaluation of Various Rehabilitation and Preservation Treatments.” Technical Report No. FHWA-HIF-10-0209, 2010.
Thenoux, G., A. González, and R. Dowling. “Energy Consumption Comparison for Different Asphalt Pavements Rehabilitation Techniques Used in Chile.” Resour.Conserv. Recycl. 49 (4), doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2006.02.005, 2007, 325–339.
Chappat, M., and J. Bilal. “The Environmental Road of the Future: Life Cycle Analysis,” Paris, France: Colas, 2003.
Chehovits, J., and L. Galehouse. “Energy Usage and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Pavement Preservation Processes for Asphalt Concrete Pavements.” First International Conference on Pavement Preservation, Transportation Research Board, 2010, 27-42.
Batouli, M., M. Bienvenu, and A. Mostafavi, “Putting Sustainability Theory into Roadway Design Practice: Implementation of LCA and LCCA Analysis for Pavement Type Selection in Real World Decision Making,” Transp. Res. Part D Transp. Environ., vol. 52, 2017, pp. 289–302. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2017.02.018
AzariJafari, H., A., Yahia, M., Ben Amor, “Life Cycle Assessment of Pavements: Reviewing Research Challenges and Opportunities.” J. Clean. Prod. 112 (Part 4), 2016, 2187–2197. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.09.080.
Santos, J., G. Flintsch and A. Ferreira. “Environmental and Economic Assessment of Pavement Construction and Management practices for Enhancing Pavement Sustainability.” Resourc. Conserv. Recycl. 110, 2017, 15-31. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2016.08.025
Zheng, X.Y., S. M. Easa., Z.X. Yang., T. Ji., and Z.L. Jiang., “Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Pavement Maintenance Alternatives: Methodology and Case Study.” Journal of Cleaner Production, 213, 2019, 659-672. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.12.227
Geiger, D.R., “Pavement Preservation Definitions,” Federal Highway Administration Memorandum, Washington, D.C, Sep 12, 2005. Available online: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/preservation/ppc06.pdf (accessed on 28 May 2019).
Hicks, R.G., S.B. Seeds, and D.G. Peshkin. “Selecting a Preventive Treatment Maintenance Treatment for Flexible Pavements.” Technical Report for Foundation for Pavement Preservation. 2000. Available online: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/legsregs/guidance.html#sec_303a (accessed on 28 May 2019).
Geoffroy, D.N. “Synthesis of Highway Practice 223: Cost Effective Preventive Pavement Maintenance,” Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1996.
Gransberg. D.D, “NHCRP Synthesis 411 Microsurfacing,” A Synthesis of Highway Practice. Transportation Research Board, 2010. doi:10.17226/14464.
Zulu, K., and K. K. Mukendi, “An In-depth Evaluation of Micro-surfacing Treatment,” Civil Engineering Journal, vol. 4, no. 9, 2018, pp. 2242–2251. doi:10.28991/cej-03091154.
Simões, D., A. Almeida-Costa, and A. Benta. “Preventive Maintenance of Road Pavement with Micro-surfacing—an Economic and Sustainable Strategy,” Int. J. Sustain. Transp., vol. 11, no. 9, 2017, pp. 670–680. doi:10.1080/15568318.2017.1302023.
Bolander, P.W. “Seal Coat Options: Taking Out the Mystery,” Transportation Research Circular No. EC078: Roadway Pavement Preservation 2005; Papers from the First National Conference on Pavement Preservation, Transport Research Board, Washington,DC., 2005.
Gransberg, D., and D.M.B. Jame, “Chip Seal Best Practice, Synthesis of Highway Practice 342,”Transport Research Board, National Cooperative Highway Research Program,Washingtion, DC, 2005. Available online: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/infrastructure/pavements/ltpp/17095/011.cfm (accessed on 28 May 2019).
Johnson, A.M. “Best Practices Handbook on Asphalt Pavement Maintenance,” Report No. 200004, Center for Transportation Studies (CTS), Minnesotta T2/LTAP Program, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 2000. Available online: https://conservancy.umn.edu/handle/11299/199769 (accessed on 14 March 2019).
Button, J.W. D.N. Little, and C.K. Estakhri, “Hot In-Place Recycling of Asphalt Concrete, Synthesis of Highway Practice 193,” Transport Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1994. doi:10.3141/1684-21.
Labi, S., and K.C. Sinha. “Measures of Short Term Effectiveness of Highway Pavement Maintenance,” ASCE Journal of Transportation Engineering Vol.129, Nr.6, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA., 2003. doi:10.1061/(asce)0733-947x(2003)129:6(673).
Babashamsi,P., N. I. Md Yusoff, H. Ceylan, N. G. Md Nor, and H. S. Jenatabadi. “Evaluation of Pavement Life Cycle Cost Analysis: Review and Analysis,” Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol., vol. 9, no. 4, 2016, pp. 241–254. doi:10.1016/j.ijprt.2016.08.004.
Tighe,S. “Guidelines for Probabilistic Pavement Life Cycle Cost Analysis,” Transp. Res. Rec. J. Transp. Res. Board, vol. 1769, October, 2001, pp. 28–38. doi:10.3141/1769-04.
FHWA, “Life Cycle Cost Analysis Primer.” U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., 2002. Available online: https://www.fhwa.dot/asset/lcca/010621.pdf (accessed on 17 August 2019).
Walls, J., and M. R. Smith, “Life-Cycle Cost Analysis in Pavement Design,” Technical Report No. FHWA-SA-98-079, September, 1998. Available online: https://www.wsdot.wa.gov (accessed on 29 March 2019).
Peterson, D. “Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Pavements, Synthesis of Highway Practice 122,” NCHRP Report, Washington, D.C., 1985.
Guven, Zeynep, Prasad Rao Rangaraju, and Serji Amirkhanian. “Life Cycle Cost Analysis in Pavement Type Selection.” Life-Cycle Civil Engineering (June 20, 2008): 805–810. doi:10.1201/9780203885307.ch125.
Blank, L.T., and A. Tarquin, Engineering Economy, 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2005.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), ISO 14040: 2006. “International Standard ISO 14040: Environmental Management – Life Cycle Assessment: Principles and Framework,” October. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva (Switzerland), 2006a. doi:10.1065/lca2005.03.001.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), ISO 14044: 2006. “Environmental Management – Life Cycle Assessment: Requirements and Guidelines,” October. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva (Switzerland), 2006b. doi:10.1065/lca2005.03.001.
Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), “Guidelines for Life Cycle Assessment: A Code of Practice,” Brussels, Belgium, SETAC Publications, 1993.
Santero, N.J., E. Masanet, and A. Horvath. “Life-Cycle Assessment part I: Critical Review.” Resour, Conserv Recycl, 2011, 55: 801–9. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.03.010
Horvath, A., and C. Hendrickson, “Comparison of Environmental Implications of Asphalt and Steel-Reinforced Concrete Pavements.” Transportation Research Record. Vol.1626, 105-113, 1998. doi:10.3141/1626-13
Stripple, H. “Life Cycle Assessment of Road: a Pilot Study for Inventory Analysis,” IVL Report B1210E, Swedish Environ. Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2001. Available online: https://www.ivl.se/ (accessed on 19 August 2019).
Park, K., Y. Hwang, and S. Seo. “Quantitative Assessment of Environmental Impacts on Life Cycle of Highways.” J Constr Eng Manag, 2003, 129: 25–31. doi:10.1061/(asce)0733-9364(2003)129:1(25).
Yu, B., and Q. Lu. “Life Cycle Assessment of Pavements: Methodology and Case Study.” Transportation Research Part D 17, 2012, 380–388. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2012.03.004.
Tatari, O., M. Nazzal, and M. Kucukvar. “Comparative Sustainability Assessment of Warm-Mix Asphalts: A Thermodynamic Based Hybrid Life Cycle Analysis.” Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 58, 2012, 18–24: doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.07.005.
Hoang, T., A. Jullien., and A. Ventura. “A Global Methodology for Sustainable Road – Application to the Environmental Assessment of French Highway”. 10th International Conference on Durability of Buildings Materials and Components, April 17th - 20th, Lyon, 2000, 1-10.
Häkkinen, T., and K. Mäkelä, “Environmental Impact of Concrete and Asphalt Pavements,” Technical Research Center of Finland, VTT Tiedotteita, Meddelanden, Research Notes 1752. 1996.
Eurobitume. Life Cycle Inventory: Bitumen. Brussels, Belgium: Eurobitume, 2011. Available online: https://www.eurobitume.eu/bitumen/sustainability (accessed on 19 October 2019).
ATHENATM Institute, “A Life Cycle Perspective on Concrete and Asphalt Roadways: Embodied Primary Energy and Global Warming Potential,” Cement Association of Canada, 2006.
Hammond, G.P., and C.I. Jones, Inventory of Carbon and Energy (ICE), 2011. doi:10.1680/ener.2008.161.2.87.
Alcom, A. “Embodied Energy and CO2 Coefficients for NZ Building Materials,” Center for Building Performance Research, Virginia University of Wellington, New Zealand, 2003.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Office Carbon Footprint Tool-Version 1.2, 2009. Available online: https://www.epa.gov/wastes/partnerships/wastewise/carboncalc.htm (accessed on 09 March 2019).
Giustozzi, F., M. Crispino, and G. Flintsch, “Multi-attribute Life Cycle Assessment of Preventive Maintenance Treatments on Road Pavements for Achieving Environmental Sustainability,” Int. J. Life Cycle Assess. vol. 17, no. 4, 2012, pp. 409–419. doi:10.1007/s11367-011-0375-6.
Gangaram, R., “Energy Emission Impact Quantification of Pavement Preservation Using Life Cycle Assessment,” Master’s Thesis, New Brunswick Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 2014. Available online: https://rucore.libraries.rutgers.edu/rutgers-lib/42387/ (accessed on 27 March 2019).
Road Costs Knowledge System (ROCKS) - World Bank Group. 2016. Available online: https://worldbank.org/roadsoftwaretools/ (accessed on 27 April 2019).
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Commodity Data Database, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C., 2018. Available online: https://www.bls.gov/data/ (accessed on 30 October 2019).
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2020 Kelvin Zulu
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.