Photosynthetic Microbial Desalination Cell to Treat Oily Wastewater Using Microalgae Chlorella Vulgaris
Microbial desalination cell (MDC) offers a new and sustainable approach to desalinate saltwater by directly utilizing the electrical power generated by bacteria during organic matter oxidation. In this study, we used microalgae Chlorella Vulgaris in the cathode chamber to produce oxygen as an electron accepter by photosynthesis process for generate bioelectricity power and treat oil refinery wastewater by microorganisms in both anode and cathode.
The power density generated by this Photosynthetic Microbial Desalination Cell (PMDC) with 1KΩ external resistance at the first 4th hr. of operation period was 0.678 W/m3 of anode volume and 0.63 W/m3 of cathode volume. It increased after one day to a peak value of (4.32 W/m3 of anode volume and 4.013 W/m3 of cathode volume). The microalgae growth in the biocathode chamber followed in terms of optical density. The optical density increased from 0.546 at the beginning of the system operation to 1.71 after 24 days of operation period. The percentage removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oil refinery wastewater was 97.33% and 79.22% in anode and cathode chamber, respectively. The microalgae in the biocathode were able to remove volatile compounds causing odor from the influent wastewater. TDS removal rate 159.722 ppm/h with initial TDS in desalination chamber of 35000 ppm.
Mohd Udaiyappan, Ainil Farhan, Hassimi Abu Hasan, Mohd Sobri Takriff, and Siti Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah. “A Review of the Potentials, Challenges and Current Status of Microalgae Biomass Applications in Industrial Wastewater Treatment.” Journal of Water Process Engineering 20 (December 2017): 8–21. doi:10.1016/j.jwpe.2017.09.006.
Essomba, Jean Serge, Julius Ndi Nsami, Placide Desire Belibi Belibi, Guy Merlain Tagne, and Joseph Ketcha Mbadcam. “Adsorption of cadmium(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution onto Kaolinite and Metakaolinite.” Pure and Applied Chemical Sciences 2 (2014): 11–30. doi:10.12988/pacs.2014.31017.
Pant, Deepak, Gilbert Van Bogaert, Ludo Diels, and Karolien Vanbroekhoven. “A Review of the Substrates Used in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) for Sustainable Energy Production.” Bioresource Technology 101, no. 6 (March 2010): 1533–1543. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2009.10.017.
Pandey, Prashant, Vikas N. Shinde, Rajendra L. Deopurkar, Sharad P. Kale, Sunil A. Patil, and Deepak Pant. “Recent Advances in the Use of Different Substrates in Microbial Fuel Cells toward Wastewater Treatment and Simultaneous Energy Recovery.” Applied Energy 168 (April 2016): 706–723. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.01.056.
Cao, Xiaoxin, Xia Huang, Peng Liang, Kang Xiao, Yingjun Zhou, Xiaoyuan Zhang, and Bruce E. Logan. “A New Method for Water Desalination Using Microbial Desalination Cells.” Environmental Science & Technology 43, no. 18 (September 15, 2009): 7148–7152. doi:10.1021/es901950j.
Debuy, Sandra, Sophie Pecastaings, Alain Bergel, and Benjamin Erable. “Oxygen-Reducing Biocathodes Designed with Pure Cultures of Microbial Strains Isolated from Seawater Biofilms.” International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 103 (September 2015): 16–22. doi:10.1016/j.ibiod.2015.03.028.
Fang, Zhou, Xian Cao, Xuexiao Li, Hui Wang, and Xianning Li. “Biorefractory Wastewater Degradation in the Cathode of Constructed Wetland-Microbial Fuel Cell and the Study of the Electrode Performance.” International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 129 (April 2018): 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.ibiod.2017.12.003.
Kalleary, Sabina, Fayidh Mohammed Abbas, Archana Ganesan, Sivarajan Meenatchisundaram, Babuskin Srinivasan, Azhagu Saravana Babu Packirisamy, Radha krishnan Kesavan, and Sukumar Muthusamy. “Biodegradation and Bioelectricity Generation by Microbial Desalination Cell.” International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 92 (August 2014): 20–25. doi:10.1016/j.ibiod.2014.04.002.
Yang, Nuan, Guoqiang Zhan, Tingting Wu, Yanyan Zhang, Qinrui Jiang, Daping Li, and Yuanying Xiang. “Effect of Air-Exposed Biocathode on the Performance of a Thauera -Dominated Membraneless Single-Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell (SCMFC).” Journal of Environmental Sciences 66 (April 2018): 216–224. doi:10.1016/j.jes.2017.05.013.
Kokabian, Bahareh, and Veera Gnaneswar Gude. “Photosynthetic Microbial Desalination Cells (PMDCs) for Clean Energy, Water and Biomass Production.” Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 15, no. 12 (2013): 2178. doi:10.1039/c3em00415e.
Kokabian, Bahareh, and Veera Gnaneswar Gude. “Sustainable Photosynthetic Biocathode in Microbial Desalination Cells.” Chemical Engineering Journal 262 (February 2015): 958–965. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2014.10.048.
Kokabian, Bahareh, Renotta Smith, John P. Brooks, and Veera Gnaneswar Gude. “Bioelectricity Production in Photosynthetic Microbial Desalination Cells Under Different Flow Configurations.” Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 58 (February 2018): 131–139. doi:10.1016/j.jiec.2017.09.017.
Kokabian, Bahareh, Umesh Ghimire, and Veera Gnaneswar Gude. “Water Deionization with Renewable Energy Production in Microalgae - Microbial Desalination Process.” Renewable Energy 122 (July 2018): 354–361. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2018.01.061.
Kokabian, Bahareh, Veera Gnaneswar Gude, Renotta Smith, and John P. Brooks. “Evaluation of Anammox Biocathode in Microbial Desalination and Wastewater Treatment.” Chemical Engineering Journal 342 (June 2018): 410–419. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2018.02.088.
Mohanakrishna, Gunda, Jai Sankar Seelam, Karolien Vanbroekhoven, and Deepak Pant. “An Enriched Electroactive Homoacetogenic Biocathode for the Microbial Electrosynthesis of Acetate through Carbon Dioxide Reduction.” Faraday Discussions 183 (2015): 445–462. doi:10.1039/c5fd00041f.
Jiang, Chen, Qi Yang, Dongbo Wang, Yu Zhong, Fei Chen, Xin Li, Guangming Zeng, Xiaoming Li, and Meirong Shang. “Simultaneous Perchlorate and Nitrate Removal Coupled with Electricity Generation in Autotrophic Denitrifying Biocathode Microbial Fuel Cell.” Chemical Engineering Journal 308 (January 2017): 783–790. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2016.09.121.
Shen, Jingya, Liping Huang, Peng Zhou, Xie Quan, and Gianluca Li Puma. “Correlation Between Circuital Current, Cu(II) Reduction and Cellular Electron Transfer in EAB Isolated from Cu(II)-Reduced Biocathodes of Microbial Fuel Cells.” Bioelectrochemistry 114 (April 2017): 1–7. doi:10.1016/j.bioelechem.2016.11.002.
He, Zhen, and Largus T. Angenent. “Application of Bacterial Biocathodes in Microbial Fuel Cells.” Electroanalysis 18, no. 19–20 (October 2006): 2009–2015. doi:10.1002/elan.200603628.
Clauwaert, Peter, Korneel Rabaey, Peter Aelterman, Liesje De Schamphelaire, The Hai Pham, Pascal Boeckx, Nico Boon, and Willy Verstraete. “Biological Denitrification in Microbial Fuel Cells.” Environmental Science & Technology 41, no. 9 (May 2007): 3354–3360. doi:10.1021/es062580r.
Arana, Thomas J., and Veera Gnaneswar Gude. “A Microbial Desalination Process with Microalgae Biocathode Using Sodium Bicarbonate as an Inorganic Carbon Source.” International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 130 (May 2018): 91–97. doi:10.1016/j.ibiod.2018.04.003.
Fazal, Tahir, Azeem Mushtaq, Fahad Rehman, Asad Ullah Khan, Naim Rashid, Wasif Farooq, Muhammad Saif Ur Rehman, and Jian Xu. “Bioremediation of Textile Wastewater and Successive Biodiesel Production Using Microalgae.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 82 (February 2018): 3107–3126. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2017.10.029.
Wang, Yue, Shih-Hsin Ho, Chieh-Lun Cheng, Wan-Qian Guo, Dillirani Nagarajan, Nan-Qi Ren, Duu-Jong Lee, and Jo-Shu Chang. “Perspectives on the Feasibility of Using Microalgae for Industrial Wastewater Treatment.” Bioresource Technology 222 (December 2016): 485–497. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2016.09.106.
Madadi, R., A. A. Pourbabaee, M. Tabatabaei, M. A. Zahed, and M. R. Naghavi. "Treatment of petrochemical wastewater by the green algae Chlorella vulgaris." International Journal of Environmental Research 10, no. 4 (2016): 555-560. doi:10.22059/ijer.2016.59684.
El-Kassas, Hala Yassin, and Laila Abdelfattah Mohamed. “Bioremediation of the Textile Waste Effluent by Chlorella Vulgaris.” The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research 40, no. 3 (2014): 301–308. doi:10.1016/j.ejar.2014.08.003.
Wang, Liang, Min Min, Yecong Li, Paul Chen, Yifeng Chen, Yuhuan Liu, Yingkuan Wang, and Roger Ruan. “Cultivation of Green Algae Chlorella Sp. in Different Wastewaters from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant.” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 162, no. 4 (November 24, 2009): 1174–1186. doi:10.1007/s12010-009-8866-7.
Valderrama, Luz T, Claudia M Del Campo, Claudia M Rodriguez, Luz E de- Bashan, and Yoav Bashan. “Treatment of Recalcitrant Wastewater from Ethanol and Citric Acid Production Using the Microalga Chlorella Vulgaris and the Macrophyte Lemna Minuscula.” Water Research 36, no. 17 (October 2002): 4185–4192. doi:10.1016/s0043-1354(02)00143-4.
Huarachi-Olivera, Ronald, Alex Dueñas-Gonza, Ursulo Yapo-Pari, Patricia Vega, Margiht Romero-Ugarte, Juan Tapia, Luis Molina, Antonio Lazarte-Rivera, D.G. Pacheco-Salazar, and Mario Esparza. “Bioelectrogenesis with Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) Using the Microalga Chlorella Vulgaris and Bacterial Communities.” Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 31 (January 2018): 34–43. doi:10.1016/j.ejbt.2017.10.013.
Logan, Bruce E., Bert Hamelers, René Rozendal, Uwe Schröder, Jürg Keller, Stefano Freguia, Peter Aelterman, Willy Verstraete, and Korneel Rabaey. “Microbial Fuel Cells: Methodology and Technology.” Environmental Science & Technology 40, no. 17 (September 2006): 5181–5192. doi:10.1021/es0605016.
Zhang, Xiaoyuan, Weihua He, Lijiao Ren, Jennifer Stager, Patrick J. Evans, and Bruce E. Logan. “COD Removal Characteristics in Air-Cathode Microbial Fuel Cells.” Bioresource Technology 176 (January 2015): 23–31. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2014.11.001.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2019 Suhad Shamil Jaroo
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.