Design and Performance of a Single Axis Shake Table and a Laminar Soil Container
Correct evaluation of shear modulus and damping characteristics in soils under dynamic loading is one of the most important topics in geotechnical engineering. Shaking tables are used for physical modelling in earthquake geotechnical engineering and is key to the fundamental understanding and practical application of soil behaviour. The shaking table test is realistic and clear when the response of geotechnical problems such as liquefaction, post-earthquake settlement, foundation response and soil-structure interaction and lateral earth pressure problems, during an earthquake is discussed. This paper describes various components of the uniaxial shaking table at university of Guilan, Iran. Also, the construction of the laminar shear box is described. A laminar shear box is a flexible container that can be placed on a shaking table to simulate vertical shear-wave propagation during earthquakes through a soil layer of finite thickness. Typical model tests on sandy soil conducted on the shaking table and the results obtained are also presented. Appropriate evaluation of shear modulus and damping characteristics of soils subjected to dynamic loading is key to accurate seismic response analysis and soil modelling programs. The estimated modulus reduction and damping ratio were compared to with Seed and Idriss’s benchmark curves.
Turan, Alper, Sean D. Hinchberger, and Hesham El Naggar. “Design and Commissioning of a Laminar Soil Container for Use on Small Shaking Tables.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 29, no. 2 (February 2009): 404–414. doi:10.1016/j.soildyn.2008.04.003.
Kramer SL. “Geotechnical earthquake engineering” (January 7, 1996).
Wood, David Muir, Adam Crewe, and Colin Taylor. “Shaking Table Testing of Geotechnical Models.” International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics 2, no. 1 (March 2002): 01–13. doi:10.1680/ijpmg.2002.020101.
Prasad, S. K., I. Towhata, G. P. Chandradhara, and P. Nanjundaswamy. "Shaking table tests in earthquake geotechnical engineering." Current science (25 November 2004): 1398-1404.
Kovacs, William D., H. Bolton Seed, and Izzat M. Idriss. "Studies of seismic response of clay banks." Journal of Soil Mechanics & Foundations Div (1971).
Richardson, Gregory Neil. “Seismic Design of Reinforced Earth Walls.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts 12, no. 9 (September 1975): 130. doi:10.1016/0148-9062(75)91197-3.
Koga, Yasuyuki, and Osamu Matsuo. “Shaking Table Tests of Enbankments Resting on Liquefiable Sandy Ground.” SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 30, no. 4 (1990): 162–174. doi:10.3208/sandf1972.30.4_162.
Orense, R.P, I Morimoto, Y Yamamoto, T Yumiyama, H Yamamoto, and K Sugawara. “Study on Wall-Type Gravel Drains as Liquefaction Countermeasure for Underground Structures.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 23, no. 1 (January 2003): 19–39. doi:10.1016/s0267-7261(02)00152-5.
El-Emam, M. M., and Richard J. Bathurst. “Experimental Design, Instrumentation and Interpretation of Reinforced Soil Wall Response Using a Shaking Table.” International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics 4, no. 4 (December 1, 2004): 13–32. doi:10.1680/ijmpg.2004.4.4.13.
Toyota, Hlrofumi, Ikuo Towhata, Shin-Ichi Imamura, and Ken-Ichi Kudo. “Shaking Table Tests on Flow Dynamics in Liquefied Slope.” Soils and Foundations 44, No. 5 (2004): 67–84. Doi:10.3208/Sandf.44.5_67.
Wartman, Joseph, Raymond B. Seed, and Jonathan D. Bray. “Shaking Table Modeling of Seismically Induced Deformations in Slopes.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 131, no. 5 (May 2005): 610–622. doi:10.1061/(asce)1090-0241(2005)131:5(610).
Cubrinovski, M., T. Kokusho, and K. Ishihara. “Interpretation from Large-Scale Shake Table Tests on Piles Undergoing Lateral Spreading in Liquefied Soils.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 26, no. 2–4 (February 2006): 275–286. doi:10.1016/j.soildyn.2005.02.018.
Jamshidi, R., I. Towhata, H. Ghiassian, and A.R. Tabarsa. “Experimental Evaluation of Dynamic Deformation Characteristics of Sheet Pile Retaining Walls with Fiber Reinforced Backfill.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 30, no. 6 (June 2010): 438–446. doi:10.1016/j.soildyn.2009.12.017.
Sadrekarimi, Abouzar. “Dynamic Behavior of Granular Soils at Shallow Depths from 1 g Shaking Table Tests.” Journal of Earthquake Engineering 17, no. 2 (May 15, 2012): 227–252. doi:10.1080/13632469.2012.691616.
Aghaei Araei, Ata, and Ikuo Towhata. “Impact and Cyclic Shaking on Loose Sand Properties in Laminar Box Using Gap Sensors.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 66 (November 2014): 401–414. doi:10.1016/j.soildyn.2014.08.004.
Varghese, Renjitha Mary, and G. Madhavi Latha. “Shaking Table Tests to Investigate the Influence of Various Factors on the Liquefaction Resistance of Sands.” Natural Hazards 73, no. 3 (March 21, 2014): 1337–1351. doi:10.1007/s11069-014-1142-3.
Yong, Koo Kean, Lim Jun Xian, Yang Chong Li, Lee Min Lee, Yasuo Tanaka, and Zhao JianJun. “Shaking Table Test on Dynamic Behaviours of Tropical Residual Soils in Malaysia.” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering 21, no. 5 (November 11, 2016): 1735–1746. doi:10.1007/s12205-016-1856-8.
Tsai, Chi-Chin, Wei-Chun Lin, and Jiunn-Shyang Chiou. “Identification of Dynamic Soil Properties through Shaking Table Tests on a Large Saturated Sand Specimen in a Laminar Shear Box.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 83 (April 2016): 59–68. doi:10.1016/j.soildyn.2016.01.007.
Bahadori, Hadi, and Roohollah Farzalizadeh. “Dynamic Properties of Saturated Sands Mixed with Tyre Powders and Tyre Shreds.” International Journal of Civil Engineering 16, no. 4 (December 26, 2016): 395–408. doi:10.1007/s40999-016-0136-9.
Yazdandoust, Majid. “Experimental Study on Seismic Response of Soil-Nailed Walls with Permanent Facing.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 98 (July 2017): 101–119. doi:10.1016/j.soildyn.2017.04.009.
Kokusho, Takeji. “Cyclic Triaxial Test of Dynamic Soil Properties for Wide Strain Range.” Soils and Foundations 20, No. 2 (1980): 45–60. doi:10.3208/sandf1972.20.2_45.
Drnevich, VP, RV Whitman, and PC Lambe. “Effect of Boundary Conditions upon Centrifuge Experiments Using Ground Motion Simulation.” Geotechnical Testing Journal 9, no. 2 (1986): 61. doi:10.1520/gtj11031j.
Fiegel, Gregg L., and Bruce L. Kutter. “Liquefaction Mechanism for Layered Soils.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 120, no. 4 (April 1994): 737–755. doi:10.1061/(asce)0733-9410(1994)120:4(737).
ASTM, D. 422. “Standard test method for measurement of particle size analysis of soils.” ASTM, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA (2004).
ASTM, D. 4253. “Standard test method for maximum index density and unit weight of soils using a vibratory table.” Annual Book of ASTM Standards. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA (2002): 1-14.
Zeghal, M., A-W. Elgamal, H. T. Tang, and J. C. Stepp. “Lotung Downhole Array. II: Evaluation of Soil Nonlinear Properties.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts 33, no. 1 (January 1996): A21. doi:10.1016/0148-9062(96)87504-8.
Wichtmann, T., A. Niemunis, and Th. Triantafyllidis. “Strain Accumulation in Sand Due to Cyclic Loading: Drained Cyclic Tests with Triaxial Extension.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 27, no. 1 (January 2007): 42–48. doi:10.1016/j.soildyn.2006.04.001.
Díaz-Rodríguez, J. A., V. M. Antonio-Izarraras, P. Bandini, and J. A. López-Molina. “Cyclic Strength of a Natural Liquefiable Sand Stabilized with Colloidal Silica Grout.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal 45, no. 10 (October 2008): 1345–1355. doi:10.1139/t08-072.
Wijewickreme, Dharma, Ali Khalili, and G. Ward Wilson. “Mechanical Response of Highly Gap-Graded Mixtures of Waste Rock and Tailings. Part II: Undrained Cyclic and Post-Cyclic Shear Response.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal 47, no. 5 (May 2010): 566–582. doi:10.1139/t09-122.
Brennan, A. J., N. I. Thusyanthan, and S. P. Madabhushi. “Evaluation of Shear Modulus and Damping in Dynamic Centrifuge Tests.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 131, no. 12 (December 2005): 1488–1497. doi:10.1061/(asce)1090-0241(2005)131:12(1488).
Hardin, Bobby O., and Vincent P. Drnevich. "Shear modulus and damping in soils: design equations and curves." Journal of Soil Mechanics & Foundations Div 98, no. sm7 (1972).
Seed, H. B. and Idriss, I. M. “Soil Moduli and Damping Factors for Dynamic Response Analysis”. Report No. EERC 70-10, University of California, Berkeley, (December 1970).
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2018 Reza Alaie, Reza Jamshidi Chenari
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.