Improvement of the Mechanical Behavior of an Environmental Concrete Based on Demolished Concrete Waste and Silica Fume

Oussama Kessal, Larbi Belgraa, Noura Djebri, Soumia Salah, Zineb Allal


The universal need to conserve resources, protect the environment, and use energy efficiently must necessarily be felt in the field of concrete technology. In Algeria, the rapid growth in the construction sector and the difficulties in setting up new quarries make it necessary to find effective alternatives to use them as building materials. The recycling of construction and demolition waste as a source of aggregates for the production of concrete has attracted growing interest from the construction industry. In this context, this work is a part of the approach to provide answers to concerns about the lack of aggregates for concrete. It also aims to develop the inert fraction of demolition materials, mainly concrete construction demolition waste (C&D), as a source of aggregates for the manufacture of new hydraulic concrete based on recycled aggregates. This experimental study presents the results of physical and mechanical characterizations of natural and recycled aggregates, as well as their influence on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete. The characterization of the materials used has shown that the recycled aggregates have heterogeneity, a high-water absorption capacity, and medium-quality hardness. However, the limits prescribed by the standards in force do not disqualify these materials from use for application as recycled aggregate concrete. The effect of silica fume and superplasticizer percentage on the mechanical and physical properties of concrete with NA and RA was analyzed and optimized using full-factorial design methodology. The results obtained from the present study show acceptable mechanical, compressive, and flexural strengths of concrete based on recycled aggregates by using Superplasticizer and 5% of silica fume, compared to those with natural aggregates. The results of the water absorption as well as the UPV confirm the positive effect of the use of superplasticizer and silica fume on the physical and mechanical behavior of concrete with recycled aggregates. Factorial design analysis shows that the developed mathematical models can be used to predict the physical and mechanical properties of concrete with RAC, superplasticizer, and silica fume.


Doi: 10.28991/CEJ-2022-08-02-04

Full Text: PDF


Recycled Aggregates Concrete (RAC); Superplasticizer; Silica Fume; Compressive Strength.


Li, L., Xuan, D., Sojobi, A. O., Liu, S., Chu, S. H., & Poon, C. S. (2021). Development of nano-silica treatment methods to enhance recycled aggregate concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites, 118, 103963. doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2021.103963.

Wang, X., Yang, X., Ren, J., Han, N., & Xing, F. (2021). A novel treatment method for recycled aggregate and the mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 10, 1389–1401. doi:10.1016/j.jmrt.2020.12.095.

Wu, C. R., Hong, Z. Q., Zhang, J. L., & Kou, S. C. (2020). Pore size distribution and ITZ performance of mortars prepared with different bio-deposition approaches for the treatment of recycled concrete aggregate. Cement and Concrete Composites, 111, 103631. doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2020.103631.

Sasanipour, H., & Aslani, F. (2020). Durability assessment of concrete containing surface pretreated coarse recycled concrete aggregates. Construction and Building Materials, 264, 120203. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.120203.

Agrela, F., Díaz-López, J. L., Rosales, J., Cuenca-Moyano, G. M., Cano, H., & Cabrera, M. (2021). Environmental assessment, mechanical behavior and new leaching impact proposal of mixed recycled aggregates to be used in road construction. Journal of Cleaner Production, 280, 124362. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.124362.

Kessal, O., Belagraa, L., Noui, A., Maafi, N., & Bouzid, A. (2020). Performance Study of Eco-Concrete Based on Waste Demolition as Recycled Aggregates. Materials International, 2(2), 123–130. doi:10.33263/materials22.123130.

Dilbas, H., Çakır, Ö., & Yıldırım, H. (2020). An experimental investigation on fracture parameters of recycled aggregate concrete with optimized ball milling method. Construction and Building Materials, 252, 119118. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.119118.

Dilbas, H., & Çakır, Ö. (2020). Influence of basalt fiber on physical and mechanical properties of treated recycled aggregate concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 254, 119216. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.119216.

Dimitriou, G., Savva, P., & Petrou, M. F. (2018). Enhancing mechanical and durability properties of recycled aggregate concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 158, 228-235.

Shaban, W. M., Yang, J., Su, H., Liu, Q. Feng, Tsang, D. C. W., Wang, L., Xie, J., & Li, L. (2019). Properties of recycled concrete aggregates strengthened by different types of pozzolan slurry. Construction and Building Materials, 216, 632–647. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.04.231.

Wang, J., Zhang, J., Cao, D., Dang, H., & Ding, B. (2020). Comparison of recycled aggregate treatment methods on the performance for recycled concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 234, 117366. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117366.

Liang, C., Ma, H., Pan, Y., Ma, Z., Duan, Z., & He, Z. (2019). Chloride permeability and the caused steel corrosion in the concrete with carbonated recycled aggregate. Construction and Building Materials, 218, 506–518. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.05.136.

Çakır, Ö., & Dilbas, H. (2021). Durability properties of treated recycled aggregate concrete: Effect of optimized ball mill method. Construction and Building Materials, 268, 121776. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.121776.

Alqarni, A. S., Abbas, H., Al-Shwikh, K. M., & Al-Salloum, Y. A. (2021). Treatment of recycled concrete aggregate to enhance concrete performance. Construction and Building Materials, 307, 124960.

Ismail, S., Kwan, W. H., & Ramli, M. (2017). Mechanical strength and durability properties of concrete containing treated recycled concrete aggregates under different curing conditions. Construction and Building Materials, 155, 296–306. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.08.076.

Kazmi, S. M. S., Munir, M. J., Wu, Y. F., Patnaikuni, I., Zhou, Y., & Xing, F. (2020). Effect of different aggregate treatment techniques on the freeze-thaw and sulfate resistance of recycled aggregate concrete. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 178, 103126. doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2020.103126.

Katz, A. (2004). Treatments for the Improvement of Recycled Aggregate. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 16(6), 597–603. doi:10.1061/(asce)0899-1561(2004)16:6(597).

Hosseini Zadeh, A., Mamirov, M., Kim, S., & Hu, J. (2021). CO2-treatment of recycled concrete aggregates to improve mechanical and environmental properties for unbound applications. Construction and Building Materials, 275, 122180. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.122180.

Liang, C., Pan, B., Ma, Z., He, Z., & Duan, Z. (2020). Utilization of CO2 curing to enhance the properties of recycled aggregate and prepared concrete: A review. Cement and Concrete Composites, 105, 103446. doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2019.103446.

Spaeth, V., & Djerbi Tegguer, A. (2013). Improvement of recycled concrete aggregate properties by polymer treatments. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 2(2), 143–152. doi:10.1016/j.ijsbe.2014.03.003.

Junak, J., & Sicakova, A. (2017). Effect of surface modifications of recycled concrete aggregate on concrete properties. Buildings, 8(1), 2. doi:10.3390/buildings8010002.

Tang, W., Khavarian, M., Yousefi, A., Chan, R. W. K., & Cui, H. (2019). Influence of surface treatment of recycled aggregates on mechanical properties and bond strength of self-compacting concrete. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(15), 4182. doi:10.3390/su11154182.

Mistri, A., Bhattacharyya, S. K., Dhami, N., Mukherjee, A., & Barai, S. V. (2020). A review on different treatment methods for enhancing the properties of recycled aggregates for sustainable construction materials. Construction and Building Materials, 233, 117894. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117894.

Wang, R., Yu, N., & Li, Y. (2020). Methods for improving the microstructure of recycled concrete aggregate: A review. Construction and Building Materials, 242, 118164. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.118164.

NF EN 197-1. (2001). Ciment - Partie 1 : composition, spécifications et critères de conformité des ciments courants. In Normalisation Française (Vol. 1, Issue Indice de classement : P 15-101-1, pp. 1–33). Février.

Dreux, G., & Festa, J. (2007). Nouveau guide du béton et de ses constituants (Ed. Eyrolles, p. 411), Paris, France.

EN 12390-3. (2009). Testing hardened concrete-Part 3: Compressive strength of test specimens. British Standards Institution, UK.

EN, E., & Standard, B. 12390-5. (2009). Testing hardened concrete–Part 5: flexural strength of test specimens. In British Standards Institution-BSI and CEN European Committee for Standardization, Uk.

Al-Ghalibi, E. A. M., & Mohamad, S. A. (2021). Evaluate the durability and effect of water absorption of recycled aggregate used in pavement. Materials Today: Proceedings, 42, 2561–2565. doi:10.1016/j.matpr.2020.12.579.

Bao, J., Li, S., Zhang, P., Ding, X., Xue, S., Cui, Y., & Zhao, T. (2020). Influence of the incorporation of recycled coarse aggregate on water absorption and chloride penetration into concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 239, 117845. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117845.

Kong, L. J., Meng, Q. C., & Du, Y. B. (2014). Effect of coarse aggregate types on the microstructure of the ITZ and durability of concrete. In Advanced Materials Research (Vols. 838–841, pp. 1801–1805). doi:10.4028/

Chen, D. H., Scullion, T., & Nam, B. H. (2016). Characterization of structural conditions for pavement rehabilitations. Construction and Building Materials, 121, 664–675. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.06.077.

Behera, M., Bhattacharyya, S. K., Minocha, A. K., Deoliya, R., & Maiti, S. (2014). Recycled aggregate from C&D waste & its use in concrete - A breakthrough towards sustainability in construction sector: A review. Construction and Building Materials, 68, 501–516. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.07.003.

Shi, C., Li, Y., Zhang, J., Li, W., Chong, L., & Xie, Z. (2016). Performance enhancement of recycled concrete aggregate - A review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, 466–472. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.08.057.

Sajedi, F., & Razak, H. A. (2011). Comparison of different methods for activation of ordinary Portland cement-slag mortars. Construction and Building Materials, 25(1), 30–38. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.06.060.

Sasanipour, H., Aslani, F., & Taherinezhad, J. (2019). Effect of silica fume on durability of self-compacting concrete made with waste recycled concrete aggregates. Construction and Building Materials, 227, 116598. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.07.324.

Kou, S. C., & Poon, C. S. (2012). Enhancing the durability properties of concrete prepared with coarse recycled aggregate. Construction and Building Materials, 35, 69–76. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.02.032.

Lafhaj, Z., Goueygou, M., Djerbi, A., & Kaczmarek, M. (2006). Correlation between porosity, permeability and ultrasonic parameters of mortar with variable water / cement ratio and water content. Cement and Concrete Research, 36(4), 625–633. doi:10.1016/j.cemconres.2005.11.009.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/CEJ-2022-08-02-04


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Oussama KESSAL, Larbi BELGRAA, DJEBRI Nora, Soumia SALAH, Zineb ALLAL

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.