Mechanical Properties of Coarse Aggregate Electric Arc Furnace Slag in Cement Concrete
The feasibility of using EAF slag aggregate, fly ash, and silica fume in pavement Electric Arc Furnace Slag Concrete (CEAFS) is the focus of this research. EAF slag aggregate is volume stable and suitable for use in concrete, according to the findings of the testing. EAF slag was utilized to replace natural coarse aggregates in the CEAFS mixes. CEAFS was created by blending 50% crushed stone with 50% EAF slag in coarse aggregates, with fly ash (FA) and silica fume (SF) partially replacing cement at content levels (i.e. FA: 0, 20, 30, and 40%; SF: 0, 5, and 10%). The soil compaction approach was used to evaluate the optimal moisture level for CEAFS mixes containing EAF slag aggregate fly ash and silica fume. A testing program was used to investigate the weight of CEAFS units and their mechanical qualities (compressive strength, flexural strength, and elastic modulus). As a result, the fresh and hardened unit weights in the CEAFS are comparable. Moreover, variations in the concentration of mineral additives FA and SF in adhesives, as well as the CEAFS mixed aggregate ratio, have an impact on compressive strength, flexural strength, and elastic modulus at all ages. However, combining EAF slag aggregate with (FA0% +SF10%; FA10% +SF0%; FA10% +SF10%; and FA20% +SF10%) the CEAFS mixtures have improved mechanical characteristics over time. According to this study, CEAFS pavements can be made with EAF slag aggregate fly ash and silica fume. In addition, a formula correlation was suggested to compute CEAFS (i.e. compressive strength with elastic modulus and compressive strength with flexural strength).
Full Text: PDF
Akinmusuru, Joseph O. “Potential Beneficial Uses of Steel Slag Wastes for Civil Engineering Purposes.” Resources, Conservation and Recycling 5, no. 1 (February 1991): 73–80. doi:10.1016/0921-3449(91)90041-l.
Koros, Peter J. “Dusts, Scale, Slags, Sludges... Not Wastes, but Sources of Profits.” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 34, no. 6 (December 2003): 769–779. doi:10.1007/s11663-003-0083-0.
Karkush, Mahdi O., and Sarah Yassin. “Improvement of Geotechnical Properties of Cohesive Soil Using Crushed Concrete.” Civil Engineering Journal 5, no. 10 (October 7, 2019): 2110–2119. doi:10.28991/cej-2019-03091397.
Maghool, Farshid, Arul Arulrajah, Yan-Jun Du, Suksun Horpibulsuk, and Avirut Chinkulkijniwat. “Environmental Impacts of Utilizing Waste Steel Slag Aggregates as Recycled Road Construction Materials.” Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 19, no. 4 (October 1, 2016): 949–958. doi:10.1007/s10098-016-1289-6.
Motz, H, and J Geiseler. “Products of Steel Slags an Opportunity to Save Natural Resources.” Waste Management 21, no. 3 (June 2001): 285–293. doi:10.1016/s0956-053x(00)00102-1.
Wang, George, Yuhong Wang, and Zhili Gao. “Use of Steel Slag as a Granular Material: Volume Expansion Prediction and Usability Criteria.” Journal of Hazardous Materials 184, no. 1–3 (December 2010): 555–560. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.08.071.
Yüksel, İsa. “A Review of Steel Slag Usage in Construction Industry for Sustainable Development.” Environment, Development and Sustainability 19, no. 2 (January 20, 2016): 369–384. doi:10.1007/s10668-016-9759-x.
Yearbook, Steel Statistical. "World steel association." Worldsteel Committee on Economic Studies—Brüssels. Belgium (2014).
Euroslag, Waste Framework. "Position Paper on the Status of Ferrous Slag," Regulation, The European Slag Association, (2013).
Juckes, L. M. “The Volume Stability of Modern Steelmaking Slags.” Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy 112, no. 3 (December 2003): 177–197. doi:10.1179/037195503225003708..
Frías, M., J. T. San-José, and I. Vegas. “Árido Siderúrgico En Hormigones: Proceso de Envejecimiento y Su Efecto En Compuestos Potencialmente Expansivos.” Materiales de Construcción 60, no. 297 (February 12, 2010): 33–46. doi:10.3989/mc.2019.45007.
Arribas, Idoia, Amaia Santamaría, Estela Ruiz, Vanesa Ortega-López, and Juan M. Manso. “Electric Arc Furnace Slag and Its Use in Hydraulic Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 90 (August 2015): 68–79. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.05.003.
Faleschini, Flora, M. Alejandro Fernández-Ruíz, Mariano Angelo Zanini, Katya Brunelli, Carlo Pellegrino, and Enrique Hernández-Montes. “High Performance Concrete with Electric Arc Furnace Slag as Aggregate: Mechanical and Durability Properties.” Construction and Building Materials 101 (December 2015): 113–121. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.10.022.
Lam, My Ngoc-Tra, Saravut Jaritngam, and Duc-Hien Le. “Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement Made of Electric Arc Furnace Slag Aggregate: Mix Design and Mechanical Properties.” Construction and Building Materials 154 (November 2017): 482–495. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.07.240.
Anastasiou, Eleftherios K., Ioanna Papayianni, and Michail Papachristoforou. “Behavior of Self Compacting Concrete Containing Ladle Furnace Slag and Steel Fiber Reinforcement.” Materials & Design 59 (July 2014): 454–460. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2014.03.030.
Santamaría, A., A. Orbe, M.M. Losañez, M. Skaf, V. Ortega-Lopez, and Javier J. González. “Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Electric Arc-Furnace Steelmaking Slag as Aggregate.” Materials & Design 115 (February 2017): 179–193. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2016.11.048.
Orbe, A., J. Cuadrado, R. Losada, and E. Rojí. “Framework for the Design and Analysis of Steel Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Structures.” Construction and Building Materials 35 (October 2012): 676–686. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.04.135.
Lee, Jin-Young, Jin-Seok Choi, Tian-Feng Yuan, Young-Soo Yoon, and Denis Mitchell. “Comparing Properties of Concrete Containing Electric Arc Furnace Slag and Granulated Blast Furnace Slag.” Materials 12, no. 9 (April 27, 2019): 1371. doi:10.3390/ma12091371.
Alharbi, Yousef R., Aref A. Abadel, Nourhan Elsayed, Ola Mayhoub, and Mohamed Kohail. “Mechanical Properties of EAFS Concrete after Subjected to Elevated Temperature.” Ain Shams Engineering Journal 12, no. 2 (June 2021): 1305–1311. doi:10.1016/j.asej.2020.10.003.
Wang, Shunxiang, Guofang Zhang, Bo Wang, and Min Wu. “Mechanical Strengths and Durability Properties of Pervious Concretes with Blended Steel Slag and Natural Aggregate.” Journal of Cleaner Production 271 (October 2020): 122590. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122590.
Fuente-Alonso, José A., Vanesa Ortega-López, Marta Skaf, Ángel Aragón, and José T. San-José. “Performance of Fiber-Reinforced EAF Slag Concrete for Use in Pavements.” Construction and Building Materials 149 (September 2017): 629–638. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.05.174.
San-José, José T., Iñigo Vegas, Idoia Arribas, and Ignacio Marcos. “The Performance of Steel-Making Slag Concretes in the Hardened State.” Materials & Design 60 (August 2014): 612–619. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2014.04.030.
Manso, Juan M., Juan A. Polanco, Milagros Losañez, and Javier J. González. “Durability of Concrete Made with EAF Slag as Aggregate.” Cement and Concrete Composites 28, no. 6 (July 2006): 528–534. doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2006.02.008.
Arribas, I., I. Vegas, J.T. San-José, and Juan M. Manso. “Durability Studies on Steelmaking Slag Concretes.” Materials & Design 63 (November 2014): 168–176. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2014.06.002.
Pellegrino, Carlo, and Vittorio Gaddo. “Mechanical and Durability Characteristics of Concrete Containing EAF Slag as Aggregate.” Cement and Concrete Composites 31, no. 9 (October 2009): 663–671. doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2009.05.006.
Tran Anh, Tu, Huan Tran Gia, Huynh Nguyen Ngoc Tri, and Son Nguyen Khanh. “Characterization of Carbonated Steelmaking Slag and Its Potential Application In Construction.” Vietnam Journal of Science and Technology 57, no. 3A (October 28, 2019): 61. doi:10.15625/2525-2518/57/3a/14078.
Lam, My Ngoc-Tra, Duc-Hien Le, and Saravut Jaritngam. “Compressive Strength and Durability Properties of Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement Containing Electric Arc Furnace Slag Aggregate and Fly Ash.” Construction and Building Materials 191 (December 2018): 912–922. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.10.080.
ASTM C150/C150M, "In Standard Specification for Portland Cement," 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, United States, PA, (2016): 19428-2959.
ASTM C1240-04, "Standard Specification for Silica Fume Used in Cementitious Mixtures; ASTM," West Conshohocken, PA, USA, (2004).
ASTM C 618-05, "Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete," ASTM: West Conshohocken, PA, USA, (2005).
ASTM C33, "Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates," ASTM West Conshohocken, PA, USA, (1999).
ASTM C29, "Standard Test Method for Bulk Density (Unit Weight) and Voids in Aggregate," ASTM West Conshohocken, PA, USA, (2017).
ASTM D4792-06, "Standard Test Method for Potential Expansion of Aggregates from Hydration Reactions," ASTM West Conshohocken, PA, USA, (2006).
Faleschini, Flora, Katya Brunelli, Mariano Angelo Zanini, Manuele Dabalà, and Carlo Pellegrino. “Electric Arc Furnace Slag as Coarse Recycled Aggregate for Concrete Production.” Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy 2, no. 1 (October 1, 2015): 44–50. doi:10.1007/s40831-015-0029-1.
Monosi, Saveria, Maria Letizia Ruello, and Daniela Sani. “Electric Arc Furnace Slag as Natural Aggregate Replacement in Concrete Production.” Cement and Concrete Composites 66 (February 2016): 66–72. doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2015.10.004.
Decision No: 430/QD-BXD, "Guideline on iron and steel slag for use as building materials," Ministry of Construction, Ha Noi, Vietnam, May 16, (2017).
TCVN 4506, "Water for and mortar - Technical spcification," Ministry of Science and Technolory, Vietnam, (2012).
TCVN 8826, "Chemical admixtures for Concrete," ASTM: West Conshohocken, PA, USA, (2011).
ACI 211.1-97, "Standard Practice for Selecting Proportions for Normal weight, and Mass Concrete (ACI 211.1-91)," Reapproved, (1997).
ASTM C39/C39M-14, "Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens," ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, (2014).
ASTM C78/C78M-18, "Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading)," ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, (2018).
ASTM C469, "Standard Test Method for Static Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson is Ratio of Concrete in Compression: ASTM," West Conshohocken, PA, USA, (2014).
Luxán, M.P., R. Sotolongo, F. Dorrego, and E. Herrero. “Characteristics of the Slags Produced in the Fusion of Scrap Steel by Electric Arc Furnace.” Cement and Concrete Research 30, no. 4 (April 2000): 517–519. doi:10.1016/s0008-8846(99)00253-7.
Mombelli, D., C. Mapelli, S. Barella, C. Di Cecca, G. Le Saout, and E. Garcia-Diaz. “The Effect of Chemical Composition on the Leaching Behaviour of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) Carbon Steel Slag during a Standard Leaching Test.” Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 4, no. 1 (March 2016): 1050–1060. doi:10.1016/j.jece.2015.09.018.
Adegoloye, G., A.-L. Beaucour, S. Ortola, and A. Noumowé. “Concretes Made of EAF Slag and AOD Slag Aggregates from Stainless Steel Process: Mechanical Properties and Durability.” Construction and Building Materials 76 (February 2015): 313–321. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.12.007.
Palankar, Nitendra, A.U. Ravi Shankar, and B.M. Mithun. “Durability Studies on Eco-Friendly Concrete Mixes Incorporating Steel Slag as Coarse Aggregates.” Journal of Cleaner Production 129 (August 2016): 437–448. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.04.033.
Mardani-Aghabaglou, Ali, and Kambiz Ramyar. “Mechanical Properties of High-Volume Fly Ash Roller Compacted Concrete Designed by Maximum Density Method.” Construction and Building Materials 38 (January 2013): 356–364. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.07.109.
Cao, Cheng, Wei Sun, and Honggen Qin. “The Analysis on Strength and Fly Ash Effect of Roller-Compacted Concrete with High Volume Fly Ash.” Cement and Concrete Research 30, no. 1 (January 2000): 71–75. doi:10.1016/s0008-8846(99)00203-3.
Duran Atiş, Cengiz. “Strength Properties of High-Volume Fly Ash Roller Compacted and Workable Concrete, and Influence of Curing Condition.” Cement and Concrete Research 35, no. 6 (June 2005): 1112–1121. doi:10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.07.037.
Technical Report 34, "The Concrete Society 2nd edition," ISBN 0-946691-49-5, (1994).
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2021 Bang Huu Tran
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.