Non-stationary Investigation of Extreme Rainfall
Natural or human-induced variability emerged from investigation of the traditional stationary assumption regarding extreme precipitation analyses. The frequency of extreme rainfall occurrence is expected to increase in the future and neglecting these changes will result in the underestimation of extreme events. However, applications of extremes accept the stationarity that assumes no change over time. Thus, non-stationarity of extreme precipitation of 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes and 1-, 3-, 6-, and 24-hour data of 17 station in the Black Sea region were investigated in this study. Using one stationary and three non-stationary models for every station and storm duration, 136 stationary and 408 non-stationary models were constructed and compared. The results are presented as non-stationarity impact maps across the Black Sea Region to visualize the results, providing information about the spatial variability and the magnitude of impact as a percentage difference. Results revealed that nonstationary (NST) models outperformed the stationary model for almost all precipitation series at the 17 stations. The model in which time dependent location and scale parameter used (Model 1), performed better among the three different time variant non-stationary models (Model 1 as time variant location and scale parameters, Model 2 as time variant location parameter, and Model 3 as time variant scale parameter). Furthermore, non-stationary impacts exhibited site-specific behavior: Higher magnitudes of non-stationary impacts were observed for the eastern Black Sea region and the coastal line. Moreover, the non-stationary impacts were more explicit for the sub-hourly data, such as 5 minutes or 15 minutes, which can be one of the reasons for severe and frequent flooding events across the region. The results of this study indicate the importance of the selected covariate and the inclusion of it for the reliability of the model development. Spatial and temporal distribution of the nonstationary impacts and their magnitude also urges to further investigation of the impact on precipitation regime, intensification, severity.
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