Experimental Study on Bearing Capacity of Alkaline Activated Granular Asphalt Concrete Columns on Soft Soils

Erdawaty Erdawaty, Tri Harianto, A. B. Muhiddin, Ardy Arsyad


In civil engineering, alternative materials showed rapid progress. Asphalt derived from Buton Island in Indonesia, also known as Asbuton, was located in the limestone bedrock. A large deposit of Asbuton could guarantee the supply of alternative construction materials. In that regard, Asbuton performance as an alternative material to several subjects needs to be analyzed. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze Asbuton’s behavior as a filler in a floating column model as a soft soil improvement concept. Asbuton added to sand and gravel mixture as filler and waterglass as a binder. CBR samples were tested to acquire the optimum composition with varied curing days namely 0, 3, and 7 days, following ASTM D-1883, followed by a compressive column model test which was based on ASTM D-2166. Finally, the column applied to the soft soil layer to be tested in a loading test, and the results are then compared for each composition. The results showed that the granular material's composition including Asbuton, the waterglass content, and the curing period significantly affect the engineering properties of the artificial column. The results revealed that the granular column with Asbuton with the addition of waterglass could increase soil’s load capacity and reduce the settlement of soft soils.


Doi: 10.28991/cej-2020-03091623

Full Text: PDF


California Bearing Ratio (CBR); Soft Soils; Asbuton; Stone Column; Alkaline Activated.


Akiyoshi, T., K. Fuchida, H. Matsumoto, T. Hyodo, and H.L. Fang. “Liquefaction Analyses of Sandy Ground Improved by Sand Compaction Piles.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 12, no. 5 (January 1993): 299–307. doi:10.1016/0267-7261(93)90015-j.

Ayadat, T., and A. M. Hanna. “Encapsulated Stone Columns as a Soil Improvement Technique for Collapsible Soil.” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Ground Improvement 9, no. 4 (October 2005): 137–147. doi:10.1680/grim.2005.9.4.137.

Michael Carter • Stephen P. Bentley “Consolidation and Settlement.” Soil Properties and Their Correlations (August 8, 2016): 74–106. doi:10.1002/9781119130888.ch5.

Nazir, R., N. Sukor, H. Niroumand, and K. A. Kassim. “Performance of Soil Instrumentation on Settlement Prediction.” Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering 50, no. 2 (May 2013): 61–64. doi:10.1007/s11204-013-9211-2.

Du, Jiancheng, and Limin Zhang. “Simplified Procedure for Estimating Ground Settlement Under Embankments.” Soft Soil Engineering (October 6, 2017): 193–198. doi:10.1201/9780203739501-24.

Vahedian, A., S. Mahini, and S. A. Aghdaei. “A Short State-of-the-Art Review on Construction and Settlement of Soft Clay Soil Reinforced with Stone ColumnA Short State-of-the-Art Review on Construction and Settlement of Soft Clay Soil Reinforced with Stone Column.” International Journal of Engineering and Technology 6, no. 5 (2014): 420–426. doi:10.7763/ijet.2014.v6.735.

Mansur, Achmad Zultan, Daud Nawir, and Daud Nawir. “Evaluasi Karakteristik Paving Block Dengan Penambahan Limbah Aspal Buton Dan Pasir Pantai.” Inovtek Polbeng 9, no. 1 (July 3, 2019): 85. doi:10.35314/ip.v9i1.927.

Gaus, Abdul, Tjaronge M.W., Nur Ali, and Rudy Djamaluddin. “Compressive Strength of Asphalt Concrete Binder Course (AC-BC) Mixture Using Buton Granular Asphalt (BGA).” Procedia Engineering 125 (2015): 657–662. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2015.11.097.

Yuniarti, Ratna. “Performance of Bio-Flux Oil as Modifier of Buton Granular Asphalt in Asphalt Concrete-Wearing Course.” Journal of JSCE 3, no. 1 (2015): 33–44. doi:10.2208/journalofjsce.3.1_33.

Kazemian, Sina, B. K. Bujang Huat, A. Thamer Mohammed, and Maassoumeh Barghchi. “The Effect of Sodium Silicate on Cement-Sodium Silicate System Grout.” Modern Methods and Advances in Structural Engineering and Construction (ISEC-6) (2011). doi:10.3850/978-981-08-7920-4_s2-g01-cd.

Muhiddin, Achmad Bakri, and Marthen M. Tangkeallo. “Correlation of Unconfined Compressive Strength and California Bearing Ratio in Laterite Soil Stabilization Using Varied Zeolite Content Activated by Waterglass.” Materials Science Forum 998 (June 2020): 323–328. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/msf.998.323.

Ellis, Harold Bernard. “Stabilization of Soils with Lime and Sodium Silicate” (1963). doi:10.31274/rtd-180814-1209.

Malarvizhi, S.N., and Ilamparuthi. “Comparative Study on the Behavior of Encased Stone Column and Conventional Stone Column.” Soils and Foundations 47, no. 5 (October 2007): 873–885. doi:10.3208/sandf.47.873.

Herrmann H., Bucksch H., “Stone Column.” Dictionary Geotechnical Engineering / Wörterbuch GeoTechnik (2014): 1311–1311. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-41714-6_197358.

Patel, Anjan. “Stone Column Method.” Geotechnical Investigations and Improvement of Ground Conditions (2019): 49–60. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-817048-9.00006-8.

K. S, Ng, and Tan S. A. “Equivalent Column Method for Stone Column Design.” Proceedings of the International Conference on Ground Improvement & Ground Control (2012). doi:10.3850/978-981-07-3559-3_02-0204.

Mochtar, Indrasurya B., and Tuncer B. Edil. “Closure to Shaft Resistance of a Model Pile in Clay’ by Indrasurya B. Mochtar and Tuncer B. Edil (November 1988, Vol. 114, No. 11).” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 116, no. 10 (October 1990): 1602–1604. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1990)116:10(1602.2).

Buol S. W., Southard R. J., Graham R. C., McDaniel P. A., “Interpretations of Soil Surveys and Technical Soil Classification.” Soil Genesis and Classification (August 5, 2011): 425–435. doi:10.1002/9780470960622.ch21.

Patel, Mehul l, and N.G.Raval N.G.Raval. “Study on Relation between CBR Value of Subgrade Soil and Moisture Content.” Indian Journal of Applied Research 1, no. 10 (October 1, 2011): 86–87. doi:10.15373/2249555x/jul2012/28.

Mollamahmutoğlu, Murat, and Eyubhan Avcı. “Engineering Properties of Slag-Based Superfine Cement-Stabilized Clayey Soil.” ACI Materials Journal 115, no. 4 (July 2018). doi:10.14359/51701924.

Hamedi, Gholam Hossein. “Comparing the Effect of Nanomaterial and Traditional Fillers on the Asphalt Mixture Properties.” Civil Engineering Journal 5, no. 2 (February 27, 2019): 320. doi:10.28991/cej-2019-03091247.

Suaryana, Nyoman, Iwan Susanto, Yohannes Ronny, and Ida Rumkita Sembayang. “Evaluasi Kinerja Campuran Beraspal Dengan Bitumen Hasil Ekstraksi Penuh Dari Asbuton.” Media Komunikasi Teknik Sipil 24, no. 1 (August 24, 2018): 62. doi:10.14710/mkts.v24i1.18175.

Suyanto, Imam, and Agung Setyo Utomo. “Analisis Data Resistivitas Dipole-Dipole Untuk Identifikasi Dan Perhitungan Sumber Daya Asbuton Di Daerah Kabungka, Pasarwajo, Pulau Buton, Sulawesi Tenggara (Pages 1-7).” Jurnal Fisika Indonesia 17, no. 50 (April 22, 2014). doi:10.22146/jfi.24414.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2020-03091623


Copyright (c) 2020 Erdawaty Erdawaty, Tri Harianto, A. B. Muhiddin, Ardy Arsyad

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.