Strengthening and Repair of a Precast Reinforced Concrete Residential Building

M. Jamal Shannag, Mahmoud Higazey


The deterioration or ageing of the existing infrastructures coupled with increased safety requirements necessitate immediate strengthening. Developing long lasting and cost effective repair techniques and materials continue to capture the attention of concrete professionals worldwide. The main purpose of this investigation was to extend the life span of a multi-storey precast reinforced concrete structure built in Riyadh 40 years ago. The condition assessments relied on analytical tools, visual, field and laboratory experiments for core samples collected from the building. The analytical checks of the building revealed considerable deflections of some slabs because of design error. The field and chemical analysis tests performed, confirmed the occurrence of durability defects as a result of poor workmanship during the construction stage. Several state-of-the-art repair techniques and materials were used for enhancing the service life of the structure at a minimum cost. The Repair strategy implemented included, removal of the deteriorated concrete, pouring a bonding agent on the surface of the damage, followed by injecting high strength cementitious grouts, supporting the deflected slabs using I-section steel beams, using cathodic protection to prevent corrosion, strengthening the columns and beams using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets, and steel jackets.


Doi: 10.28991/cej-2020-03091630

Full Text: PDF


Steel Corrosion; Precast Concrete; Cement Grout; Repair; Cracks; Buildings.


ACI Committee 546, “ACI546-R-04 Concrete Repair Guide”, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan, (2004).

Shannag, M. Jamal, and Suzan A. Al-Ateek. “Flexural Behavior of Strengthened Concrete Beams with Corroding Reinforcement.” Construction and Building Materials 20, no. 9 (November 2006): 834–840. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.01.059.

Broomfıeld, J.P., J. Rodrıguez, I.M. Ortega, and A.m. Garcıa. “Corrosion Rate Measurement and Life Prediction for Reinforced Concrete Structures.” Structural Faults and Repair (1993): 155–164.

SBC 304, “Concrete Structures”, the Saudi Building Code, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, (2018).

El-Reedy, Mohamed Abdallah. “Repair of Reinforced Concrete Structures.” Steel-Reinforced Concrete Structures (November 6, 2017): 153–180. doi:10.1201/b22237-8.

Shannag, M. Jamal, Nabil M Al-Akhras, and Sami F. Mahdawi. “Flexure Strengthening of Lightweight Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Polymers.” Structure and Infrastructure Engineering 10, no. 5 (January 23, 2013): 604–613. doi:10.1080/15732479.2012.757790.

Nayak, A.N., A. Kumari, and R.B. Swain. “Strengthening of RC Beams Using Externally Bonded Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites.” Structures 14 (June 2018): 137–152. doi:10.1016/j.istruc.2018.03.004.

Siddika A, Mamun MA Al, Alyousef R, Amran YHM. “Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams by using fiber-reinforced polymer composites: A review.” Journal of Building Engineering (September 2019):100798. doi:10.1016/j.jobe.2019.100798.

Naser, M.Z., R.A. Hawileh, and J.A. Abdalla. “Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites in Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Structures: A Critical Review.” Engineering Structures 198 (November 2019): 109542. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2019.109542.

Rastegarian, Saeed, and Ashkan Sharifi. “An Investigation on the Correlation of Inter-Story Drift and Performance Objectives in Conventional RC Frames.” Emerging Science Journal 2, no. 3 (2018). doi:10.28991/esj-2018-01137.

Balamuralikrishnan, R., and Saravanan J., “Finite Element Modelling of RC T - Beams Reinforced Internally with GFRP Reinforcements.” Civil Engineering Journal 5, no. 3 (2019): 563. doi:10.28991/cej-2019-03091268.

Venkatesh, Preethi, and Mallika Alapati. “Condition Assessment of Existing Concrete Building Using Non-Destructive Testing Methods for Effective Repair and Restoration-A Case Study.” Civil Engineering Journal 3, no. 10 (2017): 841. doi:10.28991/cej-030919.

Vijayalakshmi, R., S. Ramanagopal, R. Sathia, and R. Arvindh Raj. “Case Study on the Repair and Rehablitation of G+3Residential Appartment Located Near Sea Shore, Tamil Nadu, India.” Indian Journal of Science and Technology 10, no. 26 (2017): 1–7. doi:10.17485/ijst/2017/v10i26/115874.

Raza, Saim, Muhammad K. I. Khan, Scott J. Menegon, Hing-Ho Tsang, and John L. Wilson. “Strengthening and Repair of Reinforced Concrete Columns by Jacketing: State-of-the-Art Review.” Sustainability 11, no. 11 (2019): 3208. doi:10.3390/su11113208.

Parks, Joel E., Dylan N. Brown, M. J. Ameli, and Chris P. Pantelides. “Seismic Repair of Severely Damaged Precast Reinforced Concrete Bridge Columns Connected with Grouted Splice Sleeves.” ACI Structural Journal 113, no. 3 (2016). doi:10.14359/51688756.

Fofiu, Mihai, Andrei Bindean, and Valeriu Stoian. “Carbon Fiber Strips Retrofitting System for Precast Reinforced Concrete Wall Panel.” Key Engineering Materials 660 (2015): 208–212. doi:10.4028/

ACI 318-14, “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete”, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan, (2014).

ASTM C805, “Standard Test Method for Rebound Number of Hardened Concrete”, American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, (2018).

ASTM C42, “Standard Test Method for Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete”, American Society For Testing And Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, (2020).

ASTM C 39, “Standard test method for compressive strength of cylindrical concrete specimens” American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, (2005).

Neville, A.M., “Properties of concrete: Fourth Edition”, (1997).

ASTM C150/ C150M - 19a, “Standard Specification for Portland Cement”, American Society For Testing And Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, (2019).

Takewaka, K., and Matsumoto, S. “Quality and Cover Thickness of Concrete Based on the Estimation of Chloride Penetration in Marine Environments.” American Concrete Institute (ACI), (1988): 381–400.

Rahman, M. Kalimur, Walid A. Al-Kutti, Mohammed A. Shazali, and Mohammed H. Baluch. “Simulation of Chloride Migration in Compression-Induced Damage in Concrete.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 24, no. 7 (July 2012): 789–796. doi:10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0000458.

Mangat, P.S., and M.C. Limbachiya. “Repair Material Properties for Effective Structural Application.” Cement and Concrete Research 27, no. 4 (April 1997): 601–617. doi:10.1016/s0008-8846(97)00027-6.

Shannag, M.Jamal. “High-Performance Cementitious Grouts for Structural Repair.” Cement and Concrete Research 32, no. 5 (May 2002): 803–808. doi:10.1016/s0008-8846(02)00710-x.

Shannag, M.J., and S.M. Mourad. “Flowable High Strength Cementitious Matrices for Ferrocement Applications.” Construction and Building Materials 36 (November 2012): 933–939. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.06.051.

RILEM Committee, “Draft Recommendation for Repair Strategies for Concrete Structures Damaged by Reinforcement Corrosion.” Materials and Structures 27, no. 7 (August 1994): 415–436. doi:10.1007/bf02473446.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2020-03091630


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 M. Jamal Alshannag, Mahmoud Higazey

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.