Development of Environment-Friendly Concrete through Partial Addition of Waste Glass Powder (WGP) as Cement Replacement

Fasih Ahmed Khan, Khan Shahzada, Qazi Sami Ullah, Muhammad Fahim, Sajjad Wali Khan, Yasir Irfan Badrashi


This paper presents the study carried out on the utilization of Waste Glass Powder (WGP) as supplementary cementitious material in concrete. The evaluation of the influence of WGP on the mechanical properties of concrete was carried out by casting and testing of concrete samples as per ASTM standards (cylinders and beam elements). The control samples were designed to represent field conditions with a target compressive strength of 20,000 kPa. The Portland cement in concrete was substituted with WGP in proportions of 0%-35% by weight, in increments of 5%. Two curing domains were adopted in the preparation of the test samples to evaluate the effect of pozzolanic material wherein the tested samples were cured for 28, 56, and 84 days. The study results indicated a reduction in compressive strength of concrete up to 10% with partial replacement of cement with 25% of WGP when standard curing of 28 days was adopted. Furthermore, with the same replacement proportion and prolonged curing for 84 days, the gap in strength reduction was reduced by 5%. However, a significant decrease in workability was noted between the control concrete samples and glass powder infused concrete. Furthermore, the Waste Glass Powder Concrete (WGPC) exhibited an improved flexural strength with the modulus of rupture for WGPC being 2% higher than control concrete at the age of 84 days. Based on the results of this study it was concluded that 25% replacement of cement with WGP provides an optimum replacement ratio.


Doi: 10.28991/cej-2020-03091620

Full Text: PDF


Supplementary Cementitious Materials; Waste Glass Powder; Pozzolanic; Prolong Curing; Recycling; Green Concrete.


Cadavid-Giraldo, Nora, Mario C. Velez-Gallego, and Alexandre Restrepo-Boland. “Carbon Emissions Reduction and Financial Effects of a Cap and Tax System on an Operating Supply Chain in the Cement Sector.” Journal of Cleaner Production 275 (December 2020): 122583. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122583.

Jawad, Zahraa Fakhri, Rusul Jaber Ghayyib, and Awham Jumah Salman. “Microstructural Analysis for Cement Mortar with Different Nano Materials.” Materials Science Forum 1002 (July 2020): 615–626. doi:10.4028/

Ghani, Abdul, Zeeshan Ali, Fasih Ahmed Khan, Said Rehan Shah, Sajjad Wali Khan, and Muhammad Rashid. “Experimental Study on the Behavior of Waste Marble Powder as Partial Replacement of Sand in Concrete.” SN Applied Sciences 2, no. 9 (August 25, 2020). doi:10.1007/s42452-020-03349-y.

Schwarz, Nathan, Hieu Cam, and Narayanan Neithalath. “Influence of a Fine Glass Powder on the Durability Characteristics of Concrete and Its Comparison to Fly Ash.” Cement and Concrete Composites 30, no. 6 (July 2008): 486–496. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2008.02.001.

Carsana, Maddalena, Massimiliano Frassoni, and Luca Bertolini. “Comparison of Ground Waste Glass with Other Supplementary Cementitious Materials.” Cement and Concrete Composites 45 (January 2014): 39–45. doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2013.09.005.

Afshinnia, Kaveh, and Prasada Rao Rangaraju. “Impact of Combined Use of Ground Glass Powder and Crushed Glass Aggregate on Selected Properties of Portland Cement Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 117 (August 2016): 263–272. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.04.072.

Nassar, Roz-Ud-Din, and Parviz Soroushian. “Strength and Durability of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Containing Milled Glass as Partial Replacement for Cement.” Construction and Building Materials 29 (April 2012): 368–377. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.10.061.

Taha, Bashar, and Ghassan Nounu. "Utilizing waste recycled glass as sand/cement replacement in concrete." Journal of materials in civil engineering 21, no. 12 (2009): 709-721. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(2009)21:12(709).

Rashid, Khuram, Rizwan Hameed, Hafiz Abrar Ahmad, Afia Razzaq, Madiha Ahmad, and Alina Mahmood. “Analytical Framework for Value Added Utilization of Glass Waste in Concrete: Mechanical and Environmental Performance.” Waste Management 79 (September 2018): 312–323. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2018.07.052.

Saribiyik, Mehmet, Abdullah Piskin, and Ali Saribiyik. “The Effects of Waste Glass Powder Usage on Polymer Concrete Properties.” Construction and Building Materials 47 (October 2013): 840–844. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.05.023.

Vaitkevičius, Vitoldas, Evaldas Šerelis, and Harald Hilbig. “The Effect of Glass Powder on the Microstructure of Ultra High Performance Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 68 (October 2014): 102–109. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.05.101.

Kamali, Mahsa, and Ali Ghahremaninezhad. “Effect of Glass Powders on the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Cementitious Materials.” Construction and Building Materials 98 (November 2015): 407–416. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.06.010.

Mirzahosseini, Mohammadreza, and Kyle A. Riding. “Effect of Curing Temperature and Glass Type on the Pozzolanic Reactivity of Glass Powder.” Cement and Concrete Research 58 (April 2014): 103–111. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2014.01.015.

Ramdani, Samiha, Abdelhamid Guettala, ML Benmalek, and José B. Aguiar. “Physical and Mechanical Performance of Concrete Made with Waste Rubber Aggregate, Glass Powder and Silica Sand Powder.” Journal of Building Engineering 21 (January 2019): 302–311. doi:10.1016/j.jobe.2018.11.003.

Liu, Shuhua, Guoshuai Xie, and Shu Wang. “Effect of Curing Temperature on Hydration Properties of Waste Glass Powder in Cement-Based Materials.” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 119, no. 1 (September 4, 2014): 47–55. doi: 10.1007/s10973-014-4095-6.

Kong, Yaning, Peiming Wang, Shuhua Liu, Zhiyang Gao, and Meijuan Rao. “Effect of Microwave Curing on the Hydration Properties of Cement-Based Material Containing Glass Powder.” Construction and Building Materials 158 (January 2018): 563–573. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.10.058.

Du, Hongjian, and Kiang Hwee Tan. “Properties of High Volume Glass Powder Concrete.” Cement and Concrete Composites 75 (January 2017): 22–29. doi:10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2016.10.010.

Islam, G.M. Sadiqul, M.H. Rahman, and Nayem Kazi. “Waste Glass Powder as Partial Replacement of Cement for Sustainable Concrete Practice.” International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment 6, no. 1 (June 2017): 37–44. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2016.10.005.

Korjakins, Aleksandrs, Genadij Shakhmenko, Diana Bajare, and Girts Bumanis. “Effect of Ground Glass Fineness on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Concrete.” Proceedings of the 10th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy (ICAM) (2012): 395–402. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-27682-8_47.

Park, Seung Bum, Bong Chun Lee, and Jeong Hwan Kim. “Studies on Mechanical Properties of Concrete Containing Waste Glass Aggregate.” Cement and Concrete Research 34, no. 12 (December 2004): 2181–2189. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.02.006.

Nassif, Hani H., Husam Najm, and Nakin Suksawang. “Effect of Pozzolanic Materials and Curing Methods on the Elastic Modulus of HPC.” Cement and Concrete Composites 27, no. 6 (July 2005): 661–670. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2004.12.005.

ASTM C192 / C192M-19. Standard Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Laboratory. ASTM Int West Conshohocken, USA, (2019).

Ozer, Baris, and M.Hulusi Ozkul. “The Influence of Initial Water Curing on the Strength Development of Ordinary Portland and Pozzolanic Cement Concretes.” Cement and Concrete Research 34, no. 1 (January 2004): 13–18. doi:10.1016/s0008-8846(03)00185-6.

ASTM C618 − 19. Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use. ASTM Int West Conshohocken, USA, (2019).

ASTM C150/C150M − 19a. Standard specification for Portland cement. ASTM Int West Conshohocken, USA, (2019).

ASTM C127-15. Standard Test Method for Relative Density (Specific Gravity) and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate. ASTM Int West Conshohocken, USA, (2015).

ASTM C136 / C136M - 19. Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates. ASTM Int West Conshohocken, USA, (2019).

ASTM C29/C29M − 17a. Standard Test Method for Bulk Density (“Unit Weight”) and Voids in Aggregate. ASTM Int West Conshohocken, USA, (2017).

ASTM C128-15. Standard Test Method for Relative Density (Specific Gravity) and Absorption of Fine Aggregate. ASTM Int West Conshohocken, USA, (2015).

ASTM C87/C87M - 17. Standard Test Method for Effect of Organic Impurities in Fine Aggregate on Strength of Mortar. ASTM Int West Conshohocken, USA, (2017).

ASTM C1602 / C1602M-18. Standard Specification for Mixing Water Used in the Production of Hydraulic Cement Concrete. ASTM Int West Conshohocken, USA, (2018).

ASTM C143/C143M-15a. Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement Concrete. ASTM Int West Conshohocken, USA, (2015).

ASTM C187 - 16. Standard Test Method for Amount of Water Required for Normal Consistency of Hydraulic Cement Paste. ASTM Int West Conshohocken, USA, (2016).

ASTM C191-19. Standard test methods for time of setting of hydraulic cement by Vicat needle, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. B ASTM Stand 2019; 04.01:1–8.

ASTM C617/C617M−15. Standard Practice for Capping Cylindrical Concrete Specimens. ASTM Int West Conshohocken, USA, (2015).

C78/C78M − 18: Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading). ASTM Int West Conshohocken, USA 2010; C78-02:1–4.

Omran, Ahmed, and Arezki Tagnit-Hamou. “Performance of Glass-Powder Concrete in Field Applications.” Construction and Building Materials 109 (April 2016): 84–95. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.02.006.

Lee, Hyeongi, Asad Hanif, Muhammad Usman, Jongsung Sim, and Hongseob Oh. “Performance Evaluation of Concrete Incorporating Glass Powder and Glass Sludge Wastes as Supplementary Cementing Material.” Journal of Cleaner Production 170 (January 2018): 683–693. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.09.133.

McCarthy, Michael John, and Thomas Daniel Dyer. “Pozzolanas and Pozzolanic Materials.” Lea’s Chemistry of Cement and Concrete (2019): 363–467. doi:10.1016/b978-0-08-100773-0.00009-5.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2020-03091620


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.