Liquefaction Analysis using Shear Wave Velocity
The Andrus and Stokoe curves developed based on shear wave velocity case history databases, are the most widely used in the context of the Seed and Idriss simplified procedure as a deterministic model. Theses curves were developed from the database according to the calculate cyclic stress ratio (CSR) proposed by Seed and Idriss in 1971 with the assumption that the dynamic cyclic shear stress (τd) is always less than the simplified cyclic shear stress (τr) deduced by Seed and Idriss based on their simplifying hypotheses (rd= τd / τr <1). Filali and Sbartai in 2017, showed that rd can in many cases be greater than 1, and they have proposed a correction for the CSR in the range where rd >1. In this paper, we will present a probabilistic study based on the Bayesian method for the evaluation of the liquefaction potential of a soil deposit using a case history database based on shear wave velocity measurement. The result of this analysis shows that by using the corrected version of the simplified method, the boundary curve is moved to a new position. Then, the objective of this study is to present an adjusted mathematical model which characterizes the new position of the boundary curve (CRR) and a new formulation for computing the probability of liquefaction based on the probabilistic shape of the CRR curves using the corrected and the original version of the simplified method.
Seed, H. Bolton, and Izzat M. Idriss, ‘Simplified Procedure for Evaluating Soil Liquefaction Potential’, Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, 97 no. 9, (1971):1249–73.
Seed, H. Bolton., “Soil Liquefaction and Cyclic Mobility Evaluation for Level Ground during Earthquakes.” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts 16, no. 4 (August 1979): 81. doi:10.1016/0148-9062(79)91243-9.
Seed, H.Bolton, and I M Idriss, Ground Motions and Soil Liquefaction during Earthquakes (Berkeley, California, U.S.A.: Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, 1982.
Bolton Seed, H., Kohji Tokimatsu, L. F. Harder, and Riley M. Chung. "Influence of SPT procedures in soil liquefaction resistance evaluations." Journal of geotechnical engineering 111, no. 12 (1985): 1425-1445. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1985)111:12(1425).
Youd, T. Leslie, and Steven K. Noble. "Magnitude scaling factors." In Proc., NCEER Workshop on Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance of Soils, Nat. Ctr. for Earthquake Engrg. Res., State Univ. of New York at Buffalo, pp. 149-165. 1997.
Youd, By T L, I M Idriss, Ronald D Andrus, Ignacio Arango, Gonzalo Castro, John T Christian, and others, ‘Liquefaction Resistance of Soils : Summary R Eport From the 1996 Nceer and 1998 Nceer/Nsf Workshops on Evaluation’, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 127.10 (2001): 817–33 doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2001)127:10(817).
Akhila, V, and S Adarsh. “Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Prediction of Cyclic Resistance Ratio (CRR) of Clean Sands.” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 491 (July 8, 2020): 012048. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/491/1/012048.
Y.-S. Kuo, C.-S. Lin, J.-F. Chai, Y.-W. Chang, and Y.-H. Tseng, “Case Study of the Ground Motion Analyses and Seabed Soil Liquefaction Potential of Changbin Offshore Wind Farm,” J. Mar. Sci. Technol., vol. 27, no. 5, (2019): 448–462, doi: 10.6119/JMST.201910_27(5).0007.
Guoxing, Chen, Kong Mengyun, Sara Khoshnevisan, Chen Weiyun, and Li Xiaojun. “Calibration of Vs-Based Empirical Models for Assessing Soil Liquefaction Potential Using Expanded Database.” Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment 78, no. 2 (August 19, 2017): 945–957. doi:10.1007/s10064-017-1146-9.
Filali, Kamel, and Badreddine Sbartai. “A Comparative Study between Simplified and Nonlinear Dynamic Methods for Estimating Liquefaction Potential.” Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 9, no. 5 (October 2017): 955–966. doi:10.1016/j.jrmge.2017.05.008.
Farrokhzad, Farzad, ‘Depth Reduction Factor Assessment for Evaluation of Cyclic Stress Ratio Based on Site Response Analysis’, Advances in Systems Science and Applications, 16.3 (2016): 33–51.
Sun, Rui, Ke Wang, and Xiaoming Yuan. “Influencing Factors and New Calculation Formulae for the Stress Reduction Coefficient.” Journal of Earthquake Engineering (April 13, 2020): 1–22. doi:10.1080/13632469.2020.1739172.
Fadhil, Roaa M., and Haifaa A. Ali. “Effect of Soaking and Non-Soaking Condition on Shear Strength Parameters of Sandy Soil Treated with Additives.” Civil Engineering Journal 5, no. 5 (May 21, 2019): 1147–1161. doi:10.28991/cej-2019-03091319.
Andrus, Rd, and Kh Stokoe, Liquefaction Resistance Based on Shear Wave Velocity, Technical Report NCEER-97 (National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, 1997). Available online: https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/13896 (accessed on 18 March 2020).
Andrus, Ronald D, Kenneth H III Stokoe, and Riley M Chung. “Draft Guidelines for Evaluating Liquefaction Resistance Using Shear Wave Velocity Measurements and Simplified Procedures” (1999). doi:10.6028/nist.ir.6277.
Andrus, Ronald D., and Kenneth H. Stokoe, ‘Liquefaction Resistance of Soils from Shear-Wave Velocity’, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 126, No. 11 (2000): 1015–25 doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2000) 126:11(1015).
Juang, C. Hsein, Tao Jiang, and Ronald D. Andrus, ‘Assessing Probability-Based Methods for Liquefaction Potential Evaluation’, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 128.7 (2002):580–89. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2002)128:7(580).
Seed, H. Bolton, I. M. Idriss, and Ignacio Arango, ‘Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential Using Field Performance Data’, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 109, No. 3, (1983):458–82. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1983)109:3(458).
Boulanger, RW, and IM Idriss, ‘Evaluating the Potential for Liquefaction or Cyclic Failure of Silts and Clays’, Neuroscience Letters, 339.December (2004), 123–26. Report No. UCD/CGM-04/01. Available online: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.132.3827&rep=rep1&type=pdf (accessed on 29 April 2020).
Idriss, I. M., ‘An Update to the Seed-Idriss Simplified Procedure for Evaluating Liquefaction Potential’, in Proc., TRB Worshop on New Approaches to Liquefaction, Pubbl. N. FHWA-RD-99-165 (Federal Highway Administration, 1999) Available online: www.ce.memphis.edu/7137/PDFs/IDRISS.pdf (accessed on 17 May 2020).
Idriss, I M, and Ross W Boulanger, ‘Estimating Kα for Use in Evaluating Cyclic Resistance of Sloping Ground’, in 8th US–Japan Workshop on Earthquake Resistant Design of Lifeline Facilities and Countermeasures against Liquefaction, Report MCEER-03-0003, MCEER (SUNY Buffalo, NY, 2003a), (June 2003):449–68. Available online: https://ubir.buffalo.edu /xmlui/bitstream/handle/10477/844/03-0003.pdf?sequence=2#page=467 (accessed on 17 May 2020).
Idriss, I M, and Ross W Boulanger, ‘Relating Kα and Kσ To Spt Blow Count and To Cpt Tip Resistance for Use in Evaluating Liquefaction Potential’, in Proc. of the 2003 Dam Safety Conference (Minneapolis, Minnesota, 2003b), (2003):1–10.
Juang, C. Hsein, David V. Rosowsky, and Wilson H. Tang, ‘Reliability-Based Method for Assessing Liquefaction Potential of Soils’, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 125, No.8 (1999): 684–89 doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(1999)125:8(684).
Juang, C. H., C. J. Chen, D. V. Rosowsky, and W. H. Tang. “CPT-Based Liquefaction Analysis, Part 2: Reliability for Design.” Géotechnique 50, no. 5 (October 2000): 593–599. doi:10.1680/geot.2000.50.5.593.
Juang, C. H., C. J. Chen, W. H. Tang, and D. V. Rosowsky. “CPT-Based Liquefaction Analysis, Part 1: Determination of Limit State Function.” Géotechnique 50, no. 5 (October 2000): 583–592. doi:10.1680/geot.2000.50.5.583.
Juang, CH, RD Andrus, T Jiang, and CJ Chen, ‘Probability-Based Liquefaction Evaluation Using Shear Wave Velocity Measurements’, in Proc., 4th Int. Conf. Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics (San Diego, 2001), pp. 26–31.
Juang, C. Hsein; Jiang, Tao; Andrus, Ronald D.; and Lee, Der-Her, ‘Assessing Probabilistic Methods for Liquefaction Potential Evaluation - An Update’, in International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics. 2000 (July 24, 2000). doi:10.1061/40520(295)10.
Robertson, P. K., D. J. Woeller, and W. D. L. Finn. “Seismic Cone Penetration Test for Evaluating Liquefaction Potential under Cyclic Loading.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal 29, No. 4 (August 1, 1992): 686–695. doi:10.1139/t92-075.
Kayen, R., R. E.S. Moss, E. M. Thompson, R. B. Seed, K. O. Cetin, A. Der Kiureghian, and others, ‘Shear-Wave Velocity-Based Probabilistic and Deterministic Assessment of Seismic Soil Liquefaction Potential’, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 139, No. 3 (2013): 407–19. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000743.
Idriss, I M, and J I. Sun, SHAKE91: A Computer Program for Conducting Equivalent Linear Seismic Response Analyses of Horizontally Layered Soil Deposits, Center for Geotechnical Modeling, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA, (1992).
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2020 Filali Kamel, Sbartai Badreddine
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.