Determining the Role of Pedestrian-Orientation, Concerning the Public Places: Improvement of Urban Social Capital Quality
Studying the status of urban social capital indicates that it is declining in contemporary cities. The experts in the field of social science have seriously warned on the consequences of this decline, by examining the components of social capital which is the result of forming norms of collective life and social interaction. In this regard, urbanization knowledge seeks to strengthen social capital through targeted interventions and efforts to improve the quality of urban life. Social interactions are significantly important factors contributing to the social capital and one of the most effective ways of realizing social interactions is making and developing of "public urban places". Regarding the previous studies which show that public places are created for people's presence and social mobility, this study seeks the ways for strengthening social capital by interventions in public places and increasing their quality by determining the role of urban spaces in improving the status of social capital. For a better study of the subject, using a desk research method, field observation and scrolling through a questionnaire, the market pedestrian located in the central area of Tehran was studied. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software and the results showed that interventions with the aim of pedestrianizing and attempts to make a high quality place increase presence of people and cause a high tendency to establish social interactions.in fact pedestrian-orientation of urban areas has facilitated face-to-face and collective communication by influencing the social trust and solidarity, also it has helped with strengthening the tendency to participate and cooperate. Hence, adoption of the pedestrian-orientation policy and efforts to improve the quality of public places, have enhanced the social capital of city.
Moore, Gary T. “Knowing About Environmental Knowing.” Environment and Behavior 11, no. 1 (March 1979): 33–70. doi:10.1177/0013916579111002.
Brown, L. J., Dixon, D.,Gillham, O., “Urban Design for an Urban Century: Placemaking for People.” Choice Reviews Online 47, no. 02 (October 1, 2009): 47–0676–47–0676. doi:10.5860/choice.47-0676.
Carswell, Andrew T. “The Encyclopedia of Housing” (2012). doi:10.4135/9781452218380.
Gehl, J., Cities for People. Washington D.C.: Island Press. (2010). ISBN-13: 978-1597265737.
Whyte, W. H. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. Washington, D.C: The Conservation Foundation (1980).
Madanipour, A., “Design of Urban Space: An Inquiry into a Socio-Spatial Process (Farhan. Mortezaei,Trans)”. Tehran: Pardazesh va Barname rizi Shahri Publishing Co. (2000). ISBN 047196672X.
Hess, Paul M. “Fronts and Backs.” Journal of Planning Education and Research 28, no. 2 (December 2008): 196–212. doi:10.1177/0739456x08321799.
Joye, Y., Williems, K., Brengman, M., and Wolf, K. The Effects of Urban Retail Greenery on Consumer Experience: Reviewing the Evidence from a Restorative Perspective. Urban Forestry Urban Greening, 9, (2010). 57-64. doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2009.10.001.
Elshater, A., New Urbanism Principles versus Urban Design Dimensions towards Behavior Performance Efficiency in Egyptian Neighbourhood Unit. Social and Behavioral Sciences; (2012). (68), 826 – 843. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.12.270.
Katz, P., The New Urbanism. (Sh. Asadollahi, Ed. & Trans.), SOFFEH, (2000). (Vol. 31, pp.16-38).
Mitchell, Don. “INTRODUCTION: PUBLIC SPACE AND THE CITY.” Urban Geography 17, no. 2 (February 1996): 127–131. doi:10.2747/0272-36188.8.131.52.
Tibaldes, F. Citizen-oriented city, (Mohammad Ahmadi-Nejad. Trans.). Tehran: Khak Press, 1th Publish. . (2003).
Duany, A., Plater-Zyberk, E., and Speck, J. Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream. New York: North Point Press. (2000). ISBN-13: 978-0865477506.
Rendal, E. Charter of the New Urbanism. Congress of New Urbanism, Real Estate Literature, (1999). 10(1), 147. doi:10.1177/027046760002000417.
Edward, J., Jepson, Jr., Mary, M., Edwards., How Possible is Sustainable Urban Development? An Analysis of Planners’ Perceptions about New Urbanism, Smart Growth and the Ecological City, Planning Practice & Research, (2010). (25),4. doi:10.1080/02697459.2010.511016.
Frank, L. D., Schmid, T. L., Sallis, J. F., Chapman, J. Saelens, B. E. Linking Objectively Measured Physical Activity With Objectively Measured Urban Form: Findings From SMARTRAQ. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, (2005). 28(2S2), 117–125. PMID: 15694519 doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2004.11.001.
Myrdal, G., The place of values in social policy, Journal of Social Policy, Cited by 7 Get access; (2009). Volume 1, Issue 1; doi:10.1017/S0047279400002154.
Lang, J. Creating Architectural Theory: The Role of Behavioural Sciences in Environmental Design. (A. R. Eyni Far, Trans.). Tehran; Tehran University, (2007).
Appleyard, D. The Environment as a Social Symbol. Journal of American Planning Association, (1979).45(2), 143-153. doi:10.1080/01944367908976952.
Nasr, S. H Art in Persian Culture. Cambridge: Golgonooza Press. (1976). ISBN-10: 0903880091.
Lynch, K. The image of the City, Cambridge: MIT Press. (1960). ISBN: 9780262120043.
Frey, H. Designing the City: Towards a More Sustainable Urban Form. New York: Routledge. (1999). ISBN: 978-0419221104.
Carmona, M., de Magalhaes., Hammond, L. Public Space: The Management Dimension, New York: Routledge. (2008). ISBN: 0415396492.
Carmona, M., Tiesdell, S., Heath, T., and Oc, T. Public Spaces-Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design. London: Architectural Press, Elsevier. (2006). ISBN 1856178277.
Nasar, J. L. Urban Design Aesthetics: The Evaluative Qualities of Building Exteriors. Environment and Behavior,(1994). Vol 26, 377-401; doi:10.1177/001391659402600305.
Canter, D. The Psychology of Place. London: The Architectural Press Ltd. (1977). ISBN-10: 0312653220.
Norberg Schulz, C. The Phenomenon of Place. New York: Princton Press., (1994). ISBN-10 1568980531.
Hague, C. Planning and Place Identity, In: Place Identity, Participation and Planning, Cliff Haguge and Paul Jenkins (Eds), London: Routledge; (2005). ISBN 0203646754.
Lang, J., Urban Design the American Experience. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, (1994); ISBN 0471285420.
Brander, Luke. , Koetse, Mark. The Value of Urban Open Spaces: Meta-analyses of contingent valuation and hedonic pricing results. Journal of Environmental Management. (2011), pp2763-2773. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.06.019.
Tajvar, M., Mohammad Arab, and Ali M., “Determinants of Health-Related Quality of Life in Elderly in Tehran, Iran.” BMC Public Health 8, no. 1 (September 22, 2008). doi:10.1186/1471-2458-8-323.
Nelson, M. E. Physical Activity and Public Health in Older Adults: Recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation, (2007). 116(9), 1094–1105. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.185650.
Lund, H. Pedestrian Environments and Sense of Community. Journal of Planning Education and Research, (2002). vol 2, pp 301-312. doi:10.1177/0739456X0202100307.
Varzaneh, Hossein Hatami, Behzad Soleimani Neysiani, Hassan Ziafat, and Nasim Soltani. “Recommendation Systems Based on Association Rule Mining for a Target Object by Evolutionary Algorithms.” Emerging Science Journal 2, no. 2 (May 8, 2018). doi:10.28991/esj-2018-01133.
Leyden, K. M. Social Capital and the Built Environment: the Importance of Walkable Neighbourhoods, Public Health, Am J Public Health. (September 2003); 93(9): 1546–1551. PMCID: PMC1448008- PMID: 12948978.
Thompson, Catharine Ward. “Urban Open Space in the 21st Century.” Landscape and Urban Planning 60, no. 2 (July 2002): 59–72. doi:10.1016/s0169-2046(02)00059-2.
Peñolosa, Enrique. "Quality of urban life and development." Presentation for DKI Jakarta in conjunction with Institute for Transport and Development Policy (ITDP) (2000).
Hutabarat Lo, Ria. “The City as a Mirror: Transport, Land Use and Social Change in Jakarta.” Urban Studies 47, no. 3 (November 5, 2009): 529–555. doi:10.1177/0042098009348557.
Kay, Alan. “Social Capital, the Social Economy and Community Development.” Community Development Journal 41, no. 2 (February 15, 2005): 160–173. doi:10.1093/cdj/bsi045.
Hoffman, James J., Mark L. Hoelscher, and Karma Sherif. “Social Capital, Knowledge Management, and Sustained Superior Performance.” Journal of Knowledge Management 9, no. 3 (June 2005): 93–100. doi:10.1108/13673270510602791.
Putnam, Robert D. Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. Simon and Schuster, 2001. ISBN:9780743203043.
Wu, Chi Min, Chang Ruey Ay, and Bella Ya Hui Lien. “The Role of Social Capital and Organisational Learning in Promoting Innovation Performance.” International Journal of Information Systems and Change Management 4, no. 2 (2009): 171. doi:10.1504/ijiscm.2009.032755.
Bourdieu,P., forms of capital, handbook of theory and research« the sociology of education, New York, Greenwood Press.(2002), pp 32-33.
Lin, Shu‐Chi, and Yin‐Mei Huang. “The Role of Social Capital in the Relationship Between Human Capital and Career Mobility.” Edited by Nick Bontis. Journal of Intellectual Capital 6, no. 2 (June 2005): 191–205. doi:10.1108/14691930510592799.
Danchev, Alexi. “Social Capital and Sustainable Behavior of the Firm.” Industrial Management & Data Systems 106, no. 7 (August 2006): 953–965. doi:10.1108/02635570610688878.
Perkins, Douglas D., and D. Adam Long. “Neighborhood Sense of Community and Social Capital.” The Plenum Series in Social/Clinical Psychology (2002): 291–318. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-0719-2_15.
Francis, Paul. "Social capital at the World Bank: Strategic and operational implications of the concept." Social Development Strategy Paper, Washington DC: World Bank. E 34 (2002).
Leana, Carrie R., and Harry J. van Buren. “Organizational Social Capital and Employment Practices.” The Academy of Management Review 24, no. 3 (July 1999): 538. doi:10.2307/259141.
Mazumdar, Soumya, Vincent Learnihan, Thomas Cochrane, and Rachel Davey. “The Built Environment and Social Capital: A Systematic Review.” Environment and Behavior 50, no. 2 (January 31, 2017): 119–158. doi:10.1177/0013916516687343.
Portes, Alejandro. “Social Capital: Its Origins and Applications in Modern Sociology.” Annual Review of Sociology 24, no. 1 (August 1998): 1–24. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.24.1.1.
Paxton, Pamela. “Social Capital and Democracy: An Interdependent Relationship.” American Sociological Review 67, no. 2 (April 2002): 254. doi:10.2307/3088895.
Sabatini, Fabio. “Does Social Capital Improve Labour Productivity in Small and Medium Enterprises?” International Journal of Management and Decision Making 9, no. 5 (2008): 454. doi:10.1504/ijmdm.2008.019782.
Rhodes, Jo, Peter Lok, Richard Yu‐Yuan Hung, and Shih‐Chieh Fang.“An Integrative Model of Organizational Learning and Social Capital on Effective Knowledge Transfer and Perceived Organizational Performance.” Journal of Workplace Learning 20, no. 4 (May 16, 2008): 245–258. doi:10.1108/13665620810871105.
Lee. Lock. L. Knowledge management tool and techniques, Elsevier Butterworth, Heinemann, (2005): 123-130.
Nahapiet, Janine, and Sumantra Ghoshal. “Social Capital, Intellectual Capital, and the Organizational Advantage.” The Academy of Management Review 23, no. 2 (April 1998): 242. doi:10.2307/259373.
Cicognani, Elvira, Claudia Pirini, Corey Keyes, Mohsen Joshanloo, Reza Rostami, and Masoud Nosratabadi. “Social Participation, Sense of Community and Social Well Being: A Study on American, Italian and Iranian University Students.” Social Indicators Research 89, no. 1 (November 29, 2007): 97–112. doi:10.1007/s11205-007-9222-3.
Fussell, Hilary, Jill Harrison‐Rexrode, William R. Kennan, and Vincent Hazleton. “The Relationship Between Social Capital, Transaction Costs, and Organizational Outcomes.” Corporate Communications: An International Journal 11, no. 2 (April 2006): 148–161. doi:10.1108/13563280610661688.
Smith, Melvin L. “Social Capital and Intentional Change.” Edited by Richard Boyatzis. Journal of Management Development 25, no. 7 (August 2006): 718–731. doi:10.1108/02621710610678517.
Vilanova, E. P., and R. T. Josa. "Social capital as a managerial phenomenon." Tampere: Tampere University of Technology (2003).
Wood, Lisa, Billie Giles-Corti, and Max Bulsara. “Streets Apart: Does Social Capital Vary with Neighbourhood Design?” Urban Studies Research 2012 (2012): 1–11. doi:10.1155/2012/507503.
Herzog, A.Regula, Mary Beth Ofstedal, and Laura M Wheeler. “Social Engagement and Its Relationship to Health.” Clinics in Geriatric Medicine 18, no. 3 (August 2002): 593–609. doi:10.1016/s0749-0690(02)00025-3.
Manzo, Lynne C., and Douglas D. Perkins. “Finding Common Ground: The Importance of Place Attachment to Community Participation and Planning.” Journal of Planning Literature 20, no. 4 (May 2006): 335–350. doi:10.1177/0885412205286160.
Sajadzadeh, H, Haghi, M. R., Comparative Comparison of Peripheral Quality of Commercial Walkways and Traditional Bazaar, Case Study: Pedestrian 15th Khordad and Old Bazaar of Tehran, Urmanshahr Architecture and Urban Science and Research Journal, (Winter 2013), No. 21, pp. 49-59.
Mirzaei, Kh., Mohammadzaki, A. Social Impact Assessment walk the streets of Tehran 15 Khordad located in the region of 12 municipalities (Phase II), Urban Planning Magazine, Islamic Azad University Marvdasht Branch, Volume 7, Issue 24, (Spring 1395), pp.112-142.
Fallah Mansshadi, A., Habibi, S. and Amir Rouhi, Urban Walkways, From Ideas to Practice; Evaluation of the Tehran City Bazaar Footpath, Journal of Architecture and Urban Planning, Vol. 5, No. 9, (Autumn and Winter 2012), pp 45 -63.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2019 Mohammad Moayedi, Reza Kheyroddin, Ismail Shieh
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.