Design Charts for Axially Loaded Single Pile Action

Anis Abdul Khuder Mohamad Ali, Jaffar Ahemd Kadim, Ali Hashim Mohamad


The objective of this article is to generating the design charts deals with the axially ultimate capacity of single pile action by relating the soil and pile engineering properties with the pile capacity components. The soil and are connected together by the interface finite element along pile side an on its remote end.  The analysis was carried out using ABAQUS software to find the nonlinear solution of the problem. Both pile and soil were modeled with three-dimensional brick elements. The software program is verified against field load-test measurements to verify its efficiency accuracy. The concrete bored piles are used with different lengths and pile diameter is taken equals to 0.6 m. The piles were installed into a single layer of sand soil with angles of internal friction (20° t0 40°) and into a single layer of clay soil with Cohesion (24 to 96) kPa.  The getting results showed that for all cases study the total compression resistance is increased as pile length increased for the same property of soil, also illustrious that the total resistance of same pile length and diameter increased as the soil strength increasing. In addition, the same results were obtained for the end bearing resistance, skin resistance and tension capacity. Design charts were constructed between different types of soil resistance ratio and the pile length/diameter ratio (L/D) for all cases of study. One of improvement found from these curves that it is cheaply using piles of larger diameter than increasing their lengths for dense sand and to increasing piles lengths for loose sand. Moreover, it is inexpensively using piles of larger length in soft clay soil than increasing their diameter and piles of larger diameter in firm and stiff clay soils than increasing their length.


Pile; Compression Load; ABAQUS Program; Design Charts; Pile Action.


John Atkinson. “The Mechanics of Soils and Foundations, Second Edition” (16 May 2007). doi:10.1201/9781315273549.

Michael Tomlinson, and John Woodward. “Pile Design and Construction Practice, Fifth Edition” (November 28, 2007). doi:10.4324/9780203964293.

Coyle, H.M. and Reese, L.C. “Load transfer for axially loaded piles in clay” Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division 92-2 (1966):1-26.

Goodman, R. E., Taylor, R. L., and Brekke, T. L. “A Model for the Mechanics of Jointed Rock” Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE, 94, No. SM3, (May 1968): 637-659.

Randolph M. F., and Wroth C. P. “Analysis of deformation of vertically loaded piles” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 104 (December 1978).

Van Laethem, M., E. Backx, H. Wynendaele, F. Caestecker, and G. Dhondt. “The Use of Boundary Elements to Represent the Far Field in Soil-Structure Interaction.” Nuclear Engineering and Design 78, no. 3 (April 1984): 313–327. doi:10.1016/0029-5493(84)90195-x.

Rojas, Eduardo, Celestino Valle, and Miguel P. Romo. “Soil-Pile Interface Model for Axially Loaded Single Piles.” SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 39, no. 4 (1999): 35–45. doi:10.3208/sandf.39.4_35.

MacCabe B. A., and Lehane B. M. “Behavior of Axially Loaded Pile Groups Driven in Clayey Silt” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 132-3(March 2006): 401-410. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2006)132:3(401).

Lashkari A. “A plasticity model for sand-structure interfaces” Journal of Central South University 19-4 (2012): 1098−1108. doi:10.1007/s11771-012-1115-1.

Dong -dong Pan, Qian- qing Zhang, Shan-wei Liu, and Shi-min Zhang “Analysis on Response Prediction of a Single Pile and Pile Groups Based on the Runge-Kutta Method” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering 1 (2017) : 1-9. doi:10.1007/s12205-017-0578-x.

Shengyang Feng, Xiangyang Li, Fuliang Jiang, Lin Lei, and Zhi Chen “A Nonlinear Approach for Time-Dependent Settlement nalysis of A Single Pile and Pile Groups” Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering 54-1 (March 2017): 7-16. doi:10.1007/s11204-017-9426-8.

Hasan Ghasemzadeh, Mohsen Tarzaban, and Mohammad Mahdi “Numerical Analysis of Pile–Soil–Pile Interaction in Pile Groups with Batter Piles” Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 36-4 (January 2018): 2189–2215.

Tiago Gerheim Souza Dias, and Adam Bezuijen “Load-Transfer Method for Piles under Axial Loading and Unloading” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 144-1(January 2018) 04017096-1-04017096-9. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001808.

Md. Nafiul Haque, and Murad Y. Abu-Farsakh1 “Development of analytical models to estimate the increase in pile capacity with time (pile setup) from soil properties” Acta Geotechnica (Apri-2018): 1-25. doi:10.1007/s11440-018-0654-5.

Liu Yunlong “Interpretation of Load Transfer Mechanism for Piles in Unsaturated Expansive Soils”, Ph. D Thesis, Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Engineering University of Ottawa Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (February 2019). doi:10.20381/ruor-23056.

Psaroudakis, E. G., G. E. Mylonakis, and N. S. Klimis. “Non-Linear Analysis of Axially Loaded Piles Using ‘t–z’ and ‘q–z’ Curves.” Geotechnical and Geological Engineering (February 4, 2019). doi:10.1007/s10706-019-00823-2.

Bogumil Wrana "Pile load capacity–calculation methods", Studia Geotechnical et Mechanica. 37 (February 2016): 83-93. doi:10.1515/sgem-2015-0048.

Hibbitt, Karlsson and Sorensen Ins., ABAQUS Theory Manual, Version 11.1, 2011.

Waad U. Subber, “A Comparative Study of Interface Finite Elements in Soil-Structure Interaction Problems”, M. Sc. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Basrah, Iraq, (1996).

Riyah R. Salim, “Stress Analysis of Bored Concrete Piles Using Finite Element Method”, M. Sc. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Basrah, Iraq, (2018).

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2019-03091300


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Jaffar Ahemd Kadim

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.