Land Covers Change Assessment After Small Dam’s Construction Based on the Satellite Data

Nabi Bux Bhatti, Altaf Ali Siyal, Abdul Latif Qureshi, Imtiaz Ali Bhatti


The small dams were constructed in the study area for storing the rainwater. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of small dams on the LCC (Land Cover Change) in Nangarparkar, Pakistan based on the satellite data. The ENVI (Environment for Visualizing Images) software was used for classification of the four year’s images and three classes viz. water, vegetation, and soil were taken for detection of LCC. The MLH (Maximum Likelihood) supervised method was used to classify the multispectral satellite images. The classified results of the classes were found different each year before and after dam construction. Average results of the two years before dam’s construction revealed that water availability, vegetation cover and soil cover was 3.02%, 18.52%, and 32.30% respectively. However, after the dam construction, the water availability, vegetation cover and soil cover was 8.49%, 34.33%, and 17.15% respectively. Overall results revealed that water availability and vegetation cover were increased by 5.47 % and 15.18% respectively while soil cover decreased 15.15% after the construction of dams. Hence, based on the results, it is confirmed that the constructions of small dams have a direct and indirect positive impact on the land cover changes and it can play an important role in the resettlement of the communities of the arid areas.


Land Cover Changes; Assessment; Before and After Dam Construction; Satellite Data; ENVI Software; Nagarparkar Area.


Kahlown, Muhammad Akram, and Abdul Majeed. "Water-resources situation in Pakistan: challenges and future strategies." Water Resources in the South: present scenario and future prospects 20 (2003).

Anna Cristina Souza Da Silva, Alain Marie Passerat De Silans, Gerald Souza Silva, Flavia Augusta Das Santos, Ranato De Quriroz Porto and Cristanio Almeida Neves). Small Farm dams research project in semi- arid northeastern rejoin of Brazil. Risk in water Resources Management (proceeding of Symposium Ho3 held during IUGG2011 in Melbourne, Australia, July 2011) (IAHS Publ. 347, 2011).

Oxlade, C., “Dams, Heinemann Library, Chicago”, III. 2006.

Mehta, Rama, Sharad K. Jain, D. S. Rathore, and Kumar Garvit. "Hydrological impact of dams." IJWREM 3, no. 1 (2012): 75.

Ernest Nti Acheampong, Nicholas ozor, Ephraim Setyi-Annan. Development of small dam and their impact on the lively hood. African general of agricultural research. Fifteenth International Water Technology Conference, IWTC-15 2011, Alexandria, Egypt. 9, (24), 1867, 2014.

Dimyati, Muh, Kei Mizuno, Shintaro Kobayashi, and Teitaro Kitamura. “An Analysis of Land Use/cover Change in Indonesia.” International Journal of Remote Sensing 17, no. 5 (March 1996): 931–944. doi:10.1080/01431169608949056.

Guan, DongJie, HaiFeng Li, Takuro Inohae, Weici Su, Tadashi Nagaie, and Kazunori Hokao. “Modeling Urban Land Use Change by the Integration of Cellular Automaton and Markov Model.” Ecological Modelling 222, no. 20–22 (October 2011): 3761–3772. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2011.09.009.

Halmy, Marwa Waseem A., Paul E. Gessler, Jeffrey A. Hicke, and Boshra B. Salem. “Land Use/land Cover Change Detection and Prediction in the North-Western Coastal Desert of Egypt Using Markov-CA.” Applied Geography 63 (September 2015): 101–112. doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2015.06.015.

Zheng, Helen Wei, Geoffrey Qiping Shen, Hao Wang, and Jingke Hong. “Simulating Land Use Change in Urban Renewal Areas: A Case Study in Hong Kong.” Habitat International 46 (April 2015): 23–34. doi:10.1016/j.habitatint.2014.10.008.

Williams, Kathryn J.H., and Jacki Schirmer. “Understanding the Relationship Between Social Change and Its Impacts: The Experience of Rural Land Use Change in South-Eastern Australia.” Journal of Rural Studies 28, no. 4 (October 2012): 538–548. doi:10.1016/j.jrurstud.2012.05.002.

Wilson, Bev, and Arnab Chakraborty. “The Environmental Impacts of Sprawl: Emergent Themes from the Past Decade of Planning Research.” Sustainability 5, no. 8 (August 5, 2013): 3302–3327. doi:10.3390/su5083302.

Kamal, Pooja, Manish Kumar, and J.S. Rawat. “Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Land Use and Land Cover Change Detection: A Case Study of Gagas Watershed, Kumaun Lesser Himalaya, India.” Quest-The Journal of UGC-ASC Nainital 6, no. 2 (2012): 342. doi:10.5958/j.0974-5041.6.2.014.

Wu, Qiong, Hong-qing Li, Ru-song Wang, Juergen Paulussen, Yong He, Min Wang, Bi-hui Wang, and Zhen Wang. “Monitoring and Predicting Land Use Change in Beijing Using Remote Sensing and GIS.” Landscape and Urban Planning 78, no. 4 (November 2006): 322–333. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2005.10.002.

Vaidya, Pratima, Satish Kumar Bhardwaj, and Sahil Sood. "Land use and land cover changes in Kullu valley of Himachal Pradesh." Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 88, no. 6 (2018): 902-906.

Welde, Kidane, and Bogale Gebremariam. “Effect of Land Use Land Cover Dynamics on Hydrological Response of Watershed: Case Study of Tekeze Dam Watershed, Northern Ethiopia.” International Soil and Water Conservation Research 5, no. 1 (March 2017): 1–16. doi:10.1016/j.iswcr.2017.03.002.

Rawat, J.S., and Manish Kumar. “Monitoring Land Use/cover Change Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques: A Case Study of Hawalbagh Block, District Almora, Uttarakhand, India.” The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science 18, no. 1 (June 2015): 77–84. doi:10.1016/j.ejrs.2015.02.002.

Venkateswaran, S., Satheesh kumar, S., Kannan, R., “Land use/land cover change detection an efficacy of artificial recharge structures in Vaniyar sub basin of the Ponnaiyar river, South India using remote sensing and gis techniques. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology (IJRET), 5 (18), 12, 2016.

Bhatti, N. B., AA SIYAL, and A. L. Qureshi. "Groundwater quality assessment using water quality index: A Case study of Nagarparkar, Sindh, Pakistan." Sindh University Research Journal-SURJ (Science Series) 50, no. 2 (2018): 227-234.

Rawat, J.S., Vivekanand Biswas, and Manish Kumar. “Changes in Land Use/cover Using Geospatial Techniques: A Case Study of Ramnagar Town Area, District Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.” The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science 16, no. 1 (June 2013): 111–117. doi:10.1016/j.ejrs.2013.04.002.

Rawat, Jiwan, Vivekananda Biswas, and Manish Kumar. "Quantifying Land use/cover dynamics using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques of Nainital Town (India)." Asian Journal of Geoinformatics 13, no. 2 (2013).

Rawat, J.S., Biswas, V., and Kumar, M., “An integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS for land use /cover detection: a case study of Bhimtal Tourist Town, India”, Bull. Envir. Sci. Res, 2 (2-3), 1, 2013c.

Rawat, J.S., Biswas, V., and Kumar, M., “Change in land use /cover dynamic using multi- temporal satellite imagery: a case study of Haldwani Town area, district Nainital. Uttara khand, India”, Inter. J.Geom Geosci, 4 (3), 536, 2014.

Rawat, J.S., and Kumar, M., “Monitoring land cover changes using remote sensing and GIS techniques: A case study of Hawalbagh block, district Ulmora, Uttarkhand, India”, Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science, 18, 77, 2015.

Esmail, Mohammed, ALI Masria, and Abdelazim Negm. “Monitoring Land Use/Land Cover Changes Around Damietta Promontory, Egypt, Using RS/GIS.” Procedia Engineering 154 (2016): 936–942. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2016.07.515.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2019-03091290


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Nabi Bux Bhatti, Altaf Ali Siyal, Abdul Latif Qureshi, Imtiaz Ali Bhatti

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.