An Experimental Study on the Effect of Tire Powder on the Geotechnical Properties of Clay Soils

Davood Akbarimehr, Esmael Aflaki


With respect to the increasing production of tire wastes, the use of these wastes as an additive in civil engineering has always gained attentions of researchers due to their positive effects on material properties and reduction of environmental problems. Clay soils, as problematic soils, have always caused geotechnical problems including high Atterberg limits and consequently low workability. Tire powder, as one of the products of tire wastes, lacks clay cohesion and it can be effective in altering the plasticity of clay soils. As no comprehensive study has been conducted in this regard specifically on Tehran clay soil yet, this research studies experimentally the effect of adding different percentages of tire powder to clay soil at the Atterberg limits of clay soils with two different types of plasticity. More over according to previous studies, the effect of tire powder on other geotechnical properties of clay soils and the advantages and disadvantages of using tire powder in clay soils are discussed. The results indicate that addition of tire powder to clay soils has positive effects on reducing the Atterberg limits, increasing efficiency, and improving resistance, permeability, swelling reduction, and settlement properties, and reducing soil density and it can be used as an additive in improving clay soils.


Tehran Clay; Waste Tire; Atterberg Limits; Geotechnical Properties.


Thomas, Blessen Skariah, Ramesh Chandra Gupta, Pawan Kalla, and Laszlo Cseteneyi. “Strength, Abrasion and Permeation Characteristics of Cement Concrete Containing Discarded Rubber Fine Aggregates.” Construction and Building Materials 59 (May 2014): 204–212. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.01.074.

Kirsch, Klaus, and Alan Bell. “Ground Improvement, Third Edition” (November 28, 2012). doi:10.1201/b13678.

Tortum, Ahmet, Cafer Çelik, and Abdulkadir Cüneyt Aydin. “Determination of the Optimum Conditions for Tire Rubber in Asphalt Concrete.” Building and Environment 40, no. 11 (November 2005): 1492–1504. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2004.11.013.

Cao, Weidong. “Study on Properties of Recycled Tire Rubber Modified Asphalt Mixtures Using Dry Process.” Construction and Building Materials 21, no. 5 (May 2007): 1011–1015. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2006.02.004.

Pacheco-Torgal, F., Yining Ding, and Said Jalali. “Properties and Durability of Concrete Containing Polymeric Wastes (tyre Rubber and Polyethylene Terephthalate Bottles): An Overview.” Construction and Building Materials 30 (May 2012): 714–724. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.11.047.

Shu, Xiang, and Baoshan Huang. “Recycling of Waste Tire Rubber in Asphalt and Portland Cement Concrete: An Overview.” Construction and Building Materials 67 (September 2014): 217–224. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.11.027.

Pincus, HJ, TB Edil, and PJ Bosscher. “Engineering Properties of Tire Chips and Soil Mixtures.” Geotechnical Testing Journal 17, no. 4 (1994): 453. doi:10.1520/gtj10306j.

Zornberg, Jorge G, Alexandre R Cabral, and Chardphoom Viratjandr. “Behaviour of Tire Shred Sand Mixtures.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal 41, no. 2 (April 2004): 227–241. doi:10.1139/t03-086.

Ahmed, Imtiaz, and C. W. Lovell. "Rubber soils as lightweight geomaterials." Transportation research record 1422 (1993).

Tatlisoz, Nilay, Tuncer B. Edil, and Craig H. Benson. “Interaction Between Reinforcing Geosynthetics and Soil-Tire Chip Mixtures.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 124, no. 11 (November 1998): 1109–1119. doi:10.1061/(asce)1090-0241(1998)124:11(1109).

Rao, G. Venkatappa, and R. K. Dutta. “Compressibility and Strength Behaviour of Sand–tyre Chip Mixtures.” Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 24, no. 3 (June 2006): 711–724. doi:10.1007/s10706-004-4006-x.

Attom, Mousa F. “The Use of Shredded Waste Tires to Improve the Geotechnical Engineering Properties of Sands.” Environmental Geology 49, no. 4 (December 23, 2005): 497–503. doi:10.1007/s00254-005-0003-5.

Foose, Gary J., Craig H. Benson, and Peter J. Bosscher. “Sand Reinforced with Shredded Waste Tires.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 122, no. 9 (September 1996): 760–767. doi:10.1061/(asce)0733-9410(1996)122:9(760).

Moo-Young, Horace, Kassahun Sellasie, Daniel Zeroka, and Gajanan Sabnis. “Physical and Chemical Properties of Recycled Tire Shreds for Use in Construction.” Journal of Environmental Engineering 129, no. 10 (October 2003): 921–929. doi:10.1061/(asce)0733-9372(2003)129:10(921).

Cabalar, A. F., and Z. Karabash. “California Bearing Ratio of a Sub-Base Material Modified With Tire Buffings and Cement Addition.” Journal of Testing and Evaluation 43, no. 6 (October 10, 2014): 20130070. doi:10.1520/jte20130070.

Neaz Sheikh, M., M. S. Mashiri, J. S. Vinod, and Hing-Ho Tsang. “Shear and Compressibility Behavior of Sand–Tire Crumb Mixtures.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 25, no. 10 (October 2013): 1366–1374. doi:10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0000696.

Sarvade, Purushotham G. “Geotechnical Properties of Problem Clay Stabilized with Crumb Rubber Powder.” Bonfring International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Science 2, no. 4 (December 28, 2012): 27–32. doi:10.9756/bijiems.1671.

Trouzine, H., M. Bekhiti, and A. Asroun. “Effects of Scrap Tyre Rubber Fibre on Swelling Behaviour of Two Clayey Soils in Algeria.” Geosynthetics International 19, no. 2 (April 2012): 124–132. doi:10.1680/gein.2012.19.2.124.

Kalkan, Ekrem. “Preparation of Scrap Tire Rubber Fiber–silica Fume Mixtures for Modification of Clayey Soils.” Applied Clay Science 80–81 (August 2013): 117–125. doi:10.1016/j.clay.2013.06.014.

Tiwari, Binod, Beena Ajmera, Suzanne Moubayed, Alexander Lemmon, Kelby Styler, and Josh Guerrero Martinez. “Improving Geotechnical Behavior of Clayey Soils with Shredded Rubber Tires—Preliminary Study.” Geo-Congress 2014 Technical Papers (February 24, 2014). doi:10.1061/9780784413272.362.

Prasad, A. Shiva, P. T. Ravichandran, R. Annadurai, and P. R. Rajkumar. "Study on effect of crumb rubber on behavior of soil." International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences 4, no. 3 (2014): 579-584.

Hambirao, Ghatge Sandeep, and Dr.P.G. Rakaraddi. “Soil Stabilization Using Waste Shredded Rubber Tyre Chips.” IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering 11, no. 1 (2014): 20–27. doi:10.9790/1684-11152027.

Hidalgo Signes, Carlos, Julio Garzón-Roca, Pablo Martínez Fernández, Maria Elvira Garrido de la Torre, and Ricardo Insa Franco. “Swelling Potential Reduction of Spanish Argillaceous Marlstone Facies Tap Soil through the Addition of Crumb Rubber Particles from Scrap Tyres.” Applied Clay Science 132–133 (November 2016): 768–773. doi:10.1016/j.clay.2016.07.027.

Tajdini, Milad, Ali Nabizadeh, Hasan Taherkhani, and Hosein Zartaj. “Effect of Added Waste Rubber on the Properties and Failure Mode of Kaolinite Clay.” International Journal of Civil Engineering 15, no. 6 (July 29, 2016): 949–958. doi:10.1007/s40999-016-0057-7.

Mukherjee, K., and A. K. Mishra. “The Impact of Scrapped Tyre Chips on the Mechanical Properties of Liner Materials.” Environmental Processes 4, no. 1 (January 24, 2017): 219–233. doi:10.1007/s40710-017-0210-6.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-0309118


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Davood Akbarimehr, Esmael Aflaki

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.