Effect of Vehicular Stream Characteristics on Traffic Noise

Amjed J. Abed, Amjad H. Albayati, Yu Wang


Human health can be negatively impacted by exposure to loud noise, which can harm the auditory system. Traffic noise is the leading cause of noise pollution. This paper studies the problem of noise pollution on the roads in Baghdad, Iraq. Due to the increase in vehicle numbers and road network modifications in Baghdad, noise levels became a serious topic to be studied. The aim of the paper was thus to study traffic noise levels and the effect of the traffic stream on noise levels and to formulate a prediction model that identified the guidelines used for designing or developing future roads in the city. Then, the noise levels were measured based on five variables: the functional classification of roads, traffic flow, vehicle speed, distance from the carriageway, and skid number. An analysis of traffic noise prediction was conducted using a simple linear regression model to accurately predict the equivalent sound levels. Finally, the findings have shown that the formulated prediction model gives acceptable prediction noise levels since the R2 is 88.83%. The results showed that the noise levels measured were 23.1% and 48.8% higher than the allowable noise levels limited by Iraqi standards during the daytime and nighttime, respectively. Further, studying the alternatives used to improve the performance of the environment on the existing roads in Baghdad can be considered as a future research direction.


Doi: 10.28991/CEJ-2022-08-12-016

Full Text: PDF


Traffic Noise; Skid Resistance; Stream Characteristics; Vehicle Noise; Pollution.


Faisal, A. A., Selen, L. P. J., & Wolpert, D. M. (2008). Noise in the nervous system. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9(4), 292–303. doi:10.1038/nrn2258.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2005). United Nations road safety collaboration: a handbook of partner profiles. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Vilniškis, T., Naimušin, A., & Januševičius, T. (2022). Investigation and Modeling of Transport Noise Dependence on Traffic Speed and Impact on Population Annoyance. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, 30(1), 22–29. doi:10.3846/jeelm.2022.16275.

Sulaiman, F. S., Darus, N., Mashros, N., Haron, Z., & Yahya, K. (2018). Traffic Noise Assessment at Residential Areas in Skudai, Johor. E3S Web of Conferences. doi:10.1051/e3sconf/20183402024.

Ali, S. S., & Albayati, A. H. K. (2022). Statistical Modeling for Traffic Noise: The Case of Kirkuk City. Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, 12(5), 9108–9112. doi:10.48084/etasr.5173.

Kalansuriya, C. M., Pannila, A. S., & Sonnadara, D. U. J. (2015). Traffic composition and variability of road traffic noise levels in the vicinity of Colombo, Sri Lanka. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 43(2), 135–140. doi:10.4038/jnsfsr.v43i2.7941.

Tomić, J., Bogojević, N., Pljakić, M., & Šumarac-Pavlović, D. (2016). Assessment of traffic noise levels in urban areas using different soft computing techniques. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 140(4), EL340–EL345. doi:10.1121/1.4964786.

Xu, L., Ni, H., Zhang, Y., Sun, D., Zheng, Y., & Hu, M. (2022). Porous asphalt mixture use asphalt rubber binders: Preparation and noise reduction evaluation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 376, 134119. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.134119.

González, D. M., Morillas, J. M. B., & Rey-Gozalo, G. (2023). Effects of noise on pedestrians in urban environments where road traffic is the main source of sound. Science of the total environment, 857, 159406. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.159406.

Van Renterghem, T., Attenborough, K., Maennel, M., Defrance, J., Horoshenkov, K., Kang, J., Bashir, I., Taherzadeh, S., Altreuther, B., Khan, A., Smyrnova, Y., & Yang, H. S. (2014). Measured light vehicle noise reduction by hedges. Applied Acoustics, 78, 19–27. doi:10.1016/j.apacoust.2013.10.011.

De Donato, S. R., & Morri, B. (2001). Technical note: A statistical model for predicting road traffic noise based on Poisson type traffic flow. Noise Control Engineering Journal, 49(3), 137–143. doi:10.3397/1.2839649.

Kumar, K., Katiyar, V. K., Parida, M., & Rawat, K. (2011). Mathematical modeling of road traffic noise prediction. International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 7(4), 21–28.

Barrigón Morillas, J. M., Gómez Escobar, V., Méndez Sierra, J. A., Vílchez Gómez, R., & Trujillo Carmona, J. (2002). An environmental noise study in the city of Cáceres, Spain. Applied Acoustics, 63(10), 1061–1070. doi:10.1016/S0003-682X(02)00030-0.

Li, B., Tao, S., Dawson, R. W., Cao, J., & Lam, K. (2002). A GIS based road traffic noise prediction model. Applied Acoustics, 63(6), 679–691. doi:10.1016/S0003-682X(01)00066-4.

Sommerhoff, J., Recuero, M., & Suárez, E. (2004). Community noise survey of the city of Valdivia, Chile. Applied Acoustics, 65(7), 643–656. doi:10.1016/j.apacoust.2004.01.003.

Ali, S. M., Hama, A. R., & Ali, Y. M. (2018). A study of Land Zoning in the base of Traffic Noise Pollution Levels using ArcGIS: Kirkuk City as a Case Study. Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, 13(4), 137–151. doi:10.22153/kej.2017.06.002.

Al-Mosawe, H. M., Alobaydi, D., & Albayati, A. (2018). Development of Traffic Noise Prediction Model in an Educational Urban Area. Civil Engineering Journal, 4(11), 2588. doi:10.28991/cej-03091183.

Ohiduzzaman, Md., Sirin, O., & Kassem, E. (2018). Evaluation of traffic noise in the State of Qatar. Advances in Materials and Pavement Performance Prediction, 249–253, CRC Press, Boca Raton, United States. doi:10.1201/9780429457791-61.

Azodo, A. P., Onwubalili, C., & Mezue, T. C. (2019). Assessment of Observed Building Structure Setback of Shops along an Arterial Road and Noise Intrusion Level. Journal of Engineering, 25(12), 62–71. doi:10.31026/j.eng.2019.12.05.

Singh, D., Upadhyay, R., Pannu, H. S., & Leray, D. (2021). Development of an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system based vehicular traffic noise prediction model. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, 12(2), 2685–2701. doi:10.1007/s12652-020-02431-y.

Gilani, T. A., & Mir, M. S. (2021). Modelling road traffic Noise under heterogeneous traffic conditions using the graph-theoretic approach. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(27), 36651–36668. doi:10.1007/s11356-021-13328-4.

Singh, D., Kaler, P., Lyall, I., Singh, A., & Pannu, H. S. (2022). Traffic noise prediction using machine learning and Monte Carlo data augmentation: a case study on the Patiala city in India. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2162(1), 012021. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/2162/1/012021.

Suthanaya, P. A. (2015). Modelling road traffic noise for collector road (case study of Denpasar City). Procedia Engineering, 125, 467–473. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2015.11.125.

Barry, T. M., & Reagan, J. A. (1978). FHWA highway traffic noise prediction model. Office of Research and development, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, United States.

Shukla, A. K., Jain, S. S., Parida, M., & Srivastava, J. B. (2009). Performance of FHWA model for predicting traffic noise: A case study of metropolitan city, Lucknow (India). Transport, 24(3), 234–240. doi:10.3846/1648-4142.2009.24.234-240.

Steele, C. (2001). Critical review of some traffic noise prediction models. Applied Acoustics, 62(3), 271–287. doi:10.1016/S0003-682X(00)00030-X.

Kundu, S., Mondal, N. K., & Mishra, D. (2021). Prediction of Road Traffic Noise by CRTN Model in a Sub-Urban Town of India. The Global Environmental Engineers, 8, 1–13. doi:10.15377/2410-3624.2021.08.1.

Halim, H., Abdullah, R., Mohd Nor, M. J., Abdul Aziz, H., & Abd Rahman, N. (2017). Comparison between Measured Traffic Noise in Klang Valley, Malaysia and Existing Prediction Models. Engineering Heritage Journal, 1(2), 10–14. doi:10.26480/gwk.02.2017.10.14.

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). (2018). Noise Measurement Handbook. Final Report, FHWA-HEP-18-065, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, United States.

Kholikov, A. I., & Azizov, K. K. (2022). Traffic Noise Forecasting on Tashkent City Main Streets. Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies, 15(2), 248-260. doi:10.17516/1999-494X-0388.

Radam, I. F., & Heriyatna, E. (2018). A Correlation Analysis of Noise Level and Traffic Flow: Case of One Way Road in Banjarmasin. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 06(02), 60–64.

Ohiduzzaman, M. D., Sirin, O., Kassem, E., & Rochat, J. L. (2016). State-of-the-art review on sustainable design and construction of quieter pavements-Part 1: Traffic noise measurement and abatement techniques. Sustainability (Switzerland), 8(8). doi:10.3390/su8080742.

Presidency of Iraqi Government. (2015). Law of Noise Pollution Control. Presidency of Iraqi Government, Baghdad, Iraq. Available online: https://www.moj.gov.iq/uploaded/4390.pdf (accessed on August 2022). (In Arabic).

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/CEJ-2022-08-12-016


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 amjed jabbar abed

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.