Behavior of RC Wide Beams under Eccentric Loading

Samer Magdy Mahmoud, Rasha T. S. Mabrouk, Magdy E. Kassem


Wide beams are one of the widely used structural elements in RC buildings due to the many special features that characterize them. The main objective of this research is to investigate the behavior of wide shallow beams under the effect of eccentric loading acting along their cross sections. To achieve that, an experimental program that consisted of seven wide beams was conducted. All beams were loaded using two concentrated loads at their middle third where the main parameters considered were: the magnitude of the load eccentricity, the longitudinal spacing between shear reinforcement, and the arrangement of the longitudinal reinforcement. Following that, a finite element analysis was performed where the analytical model used was first verified using the data from the experimental program. The results from both the experimental and analytical programs were in good agreement. Then, the finite element analysis was extended through a parametric study where other variables were studies such as the compressive strength of concrete, the transverse spacing between stirrups and the longitudinal reinforcement ratio. The results showed that the value of the load eccentricity, spacing between shear reinforcement, the arrangement of the main reinforcement along the beam cross section, and the compressive strength of concrete significantly affected the torsional resistance of shallow wide beams. Conclusions and recommendations are presented which can be useful for future researchers.


Doi: 10.28991/cej-2021-03091766

Full Text: PDF


Shallow Wide Beam; Torsional Moment; Cracks Pattern; Eccentric Load; Ultimate Load; Finite Element.


Helou, Samir H, and Munther Diab. “Slabs with Hidden Beams, Facts and Fallacies.” In The International Conference of Civil Engineering (ICCE), 02:316–19, 2014.

Hsu, Thomas TC. "Torsion of Structural Concrete-Plain Concrete Rectangular Sections." Special Publication, American Concrete Institute 18 (1968): 203-238.

Wang, Guo Lin, and Wen Sheng Ding. “Experimental Study on Shear Behavior of Prestressed Concrete Beams.” Applied Mechanics and Materials 226–228 (November 2012): 1045–1048. doi:10.4028/

Said, M., and T.M. Elrakib. “Enhancement of Shear Strength and Ductility for Reinforced Concrete Wide Beams Due to Web Reinforcement.” HBRC Journal 9, no. 3 (December 2013): 235–242. doi:10.1016/j.hbrcj.2013.05.011.

Mohammadyan-Yasouj, S. E., A. K. Marsono, R. Abdullah, and M. Moghadasi. “Wide Beam Shear Behavior with Diverse Types of Reinforcement.” ACI Structural Journal 112, no. 2 (2015): 199–208. doi:10.14359/51687299.

Lee, K S, S H Lee, and S W Shin. “Shear Behavior of Reinforced Concrete.” MSc. Thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt (2013).

Lubell, Adam S., Evan C. Bentz, and Michael P. Collins. “Shear Reinforcement Spacing in Wide Members.” ACI Structural Journal 106, no. 2 (2009): 205–14. doi:10.14359/56359.

Shuraim, Ahmed B. “Transverse Stirrup Configurations in RC Wide Shallow Beams Supported on Narrow Columns.” Journal of Structural Engineering 138, no. 3 (2012): 416–24. doi:10.1061/(asce)st.1943-541x.0000408.

Elansary, Ahmed A., Yasser Y. Elnazlawy, and Hany A. Abdalla. “Shear Behaviour of Concrete Wide Beams with Spiral Lateral Reinforcement.” Australian Journal of Civil Engineering (June 23, 2021): 1–21. doi:10.1080/14488353.2021.1942405.

Angelakos, Dino, Evan C. Bentz, and Michael P. Collins. “Effect of Concrete Strength and Minimum Stirrups on Shear Strength of Large Members.” ACI Structural Journal 98, no. 3 (2001): 290–300. doi:10.14359/10220.

American Concrete Institute, Detroit, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-63) - ACI Committee 318. Farmington Hills, Mich, (1989).

Sherwood, Edward G., Adam S. Lubell, Evan C. Bentz, and Michael P. Collins. “One-Way Shear Strength of Thick Slabs and Wide Beams.” ACI Structural Journal 103, no. 6 (2006): 794–802. doi:10.14359/18229.

ACI Committee 318. “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-05) and Commentary (318R-05).” American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Mich., (2005): 430.

Kim, Min Sook, Joowon Kang, and Young Hak Lee. “Improved Shear Strength Equation for Concrete Wide Beams.” Applied Sciences (Switzerland) 9, no. 21 (2019): 4513. doi:10.3390/app9214513.

Collin, Michael P., Phillip T. Quac, and Evan C. Ben. “Shear Behavior of Thick Slabs.” ACI Structural Journal 117, no. 4 (2020): 115–26. doi:10.14359/51724666.

ACI Committee 318. “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-14) and Commentary (318R-14).” American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Mich., (2005): 519.

Bernardo, Luis F.A., and Sérgio M.R. Lopes. “Torsion in High-Strength Concrete Hollow Beams: Strength and Ductility Analysis.” ACI Structural Journal 106, no. 1 (2009): 39–48. doi:10.14359/56282.

Elnady, Ahmed Mamdouh. “Torsional behavior of RC beams with opening retrofitted with FRP material.” MSc. Thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Egypt, (2015).

Fang, I. Kuang, and Jyh Kun Shiau. “Torsional Behavior of Normal- and High-Strength Concrete Beams.” ACI Structural Journal 101, no. 3 (2004): 304–13. doi:10.14359/13090.

Kim, Yail J., Yongcheng Ji, and Troy Butler. “Uncertainty Modeling of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Confined Concrete in Acid-Induced Damage.” ACI Structural Journal 116, no. 6 (2019): 97–108. doi:10.14359/51716761.

Lee, Jung Yoon, Kil Hee Kim, Seung Hoon Lee, Changhyuk Kim, and Min Ha Kim. “Maximum Torsional Reinforcement of Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Pure Torsion.” ACI Structural Journal 115, no. 3 (2018): 749–60. doi:10.14359/51701108.

Jeng, Chyuan Hwan, Sheng Fu Peng, Hao Jan Chiu, and Chih Kun Hsiao. “New Torsion Experiment on Large-Sized Hollow Reinforced Concrete Beams.” ACI Structural Journal 111, no. 6 (2014): 1469–80. doi:10.14359/51687166.

Ju, Hyunjin, and Deuckhang Lee. “Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Members Subjected to Combined Torsion and Bending Moment.” ACI Structural Journal 118, no. 4 (2021): 55–70. doi:10.14359/51732643.

ANSYS, (2019), Release 14.0 Documentation. ANSYS Inc.

ECP 203-2018. "The Egyptian Code for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures." Ministry of Housing, Cairo, Egypt, (2018).

ACI Committee 318. “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-19) and Commentary (318R-19).” American Concrete Institute, (2019).

BS 8110-2015 "Structural Use of Concrete: Part 1: Code of Practice for Design and Construction." BRITISH STANDARD.

Lubell, Adam, Ted Sherwood, Evan Bentz, and Michael Collins. “Safe Shear Design of Large Wide Beams.” Concrete International 26, no. 1 (2004): 66–78.

Eurocode 2, “Design of Concrete Structures—Part 1-1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings (EN1992-1-1).” European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, (Dec. 2004): 225.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2021-03091766


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Rasha Mabrouk

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.