Exploration of Waste Plastic Bottles Use in Construction

Donald Kwabena Dadzie, Abdul K Kaliluthin, D. Raj Kumar


The vision of this study is geared towards the exploitation of waste plastic bottle use in construction. This review paper is centers on the recycling of waste plastic bottles as a construction material as an effort to help solve the housing deficit in most developing countries including Ghana and to save the depletion of natural resources construction materials. In Ghana, plastic wastes are discarded randomly after usage, hence scatter around in cities, choking drains, and end up threatening our ecosystem. These predominant effects from the plastic wastes have necessitated the need for countries precisely developing countries including Ghana to seek more sustainable methods to reduce the drastic amount of plastic wastes in the environment. In view of the above, this paper focused on the recycling of waste plastic bottles as a construction material as an effort to solve the housing deficit in most developing countries including Ghana and to save the depletion of natural resources construction materials (stones and sand) are very much critical. In the reviews, an effort has been made to utilize the waster plastic bottles in construction by filling the bottles with soil, sand, solid waste materials as brick or block bounded with mortar as a masonry wall or the filled bottles are used as a substitute for the production of the masonry unit production. In summary, it was concluded based on varying test result that: (1) Plastic waste bottles are cheaper to acquire than most conventional construction materials and as such concrete or brick containing any amount of plastic bottle is noted to reduce the total quantities of conventional materials required, thereby reducing the cost as well. (2) The use of plastic waste bottles in construction contributes to environmental friendliness and energy savings since buildings with walls constructed of plastic bottles maintains room temperatures and contribute to energy saving and the cost of providing an artificial thermal control system.


Doi: 10.28991/cej-2020-03091616

Full Text: PDF


Waste Plastic Bottles; Construction; Materials; Masonry unit


Zaman, Atiq Uz, and Steffen Lehmann. “Challenges and Opportunities in Transforming a City into a ‘Zero Waste City.’” Challenges 2, no. 4 (November 2, 2011): 73–93. doi:10.3390/challe2040073.

Wilson, David C. “Development Drivers for Waste Management.” Waste Management & Research 25, no. 3 (June 2007): 198–207. doi:10.1177/0734242x07079149.

Williams, Paul T. “Waste Treatment and Disposal” John Wiley & Sons, New York (January 14, 2005). doi:10.1002/0470012668.

Tchobanoglous, George, Hilary Theisen, and Samuel Vigil. “Integrated solid waste management: Engineering principles and management issues.” McGraw-Hill, (1993).

Rajput, R., G. Prasad, and A. K. Chopra. "Scenario of solid waste management in present Indian context." Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences 7, no. 1 (2009): 45-53.

Oteng-Ababio, Martin. “Rethinking Waste as a Resource: Insights from a Low-Income Community in Accra, Ghana.” City, Territory and Architecture 1, no. 1 (2014): 10. doi:10.1186/2195-2701-1-10.

Supreme Court. "Solid Waste Management in Class 1 Cities in India: Report of the Committee constituted by the Hon. Supreme Court of India." (1999).

Brunner, Paul H., and Helmut Rechberger. “Waste to Energy – Key Element for Sustainable Waste Management.” Waste Management 37 (March 2015): 3–12. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2014.02.003.

Chandler, A. John, T. Taylor Eighmy, O. Hjelmar, D. S. Kosson, S. E. Sawell, J. Vehlow, H. A. Van der Sloot, and J. Hartlén. Municipal solid waste incinerator residues. Elsevier, (1997).

Vergara, Sintana E., and George Tchobanoglous. “Municipal Solid Waste and the Environment: A Global Perspective.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 37, no. 1 (November 21, 2012): 277–309. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-050511-122532.

Basel Convention (1989). Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal. Available online: http://www.basel.int/Portals/4/Basel%20Convention/docs/text/con-e-rev.pdf (accessed on 20 July 2020).

United Nations Statistics Departmen. Glossary of Environment Statistics Archived 2013-01-04 at the Wayback Machine. (1997). Available online: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/dir/2008/98/oj/eng (accessed on 20 June 2020).

European Union (2008). Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives (Text with EEA relevance)". Available online: europa.eu (accessed on 20 July 2020).

Basu, Rita. "Solid Waste Management-A Model Study." Sies Journal of Management 6, no. 2 (2009): 20-24.

Dijkema, G.P.J, M.A Reuter, and E.V Verhoef. “A New Paradigm for Waste Management.” Waste Management 20, no. 8 (December 2000): 633–638. doi:10.1016/s0956-053x(00)00052-0.

Cheremisinoff, Nicholas P. “Handbook of solid waste management and waste minimization technologies.” Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, (2003).

Miezah, Kodwo, Kwasi Obiri-Danso, Zsófia Kádár, Bernard Fei-Baffoe, and Moses Y. Mensah. “Municipal Solid Waste Characterization and Quantification as a Measure towards Effective Waste Management in Ghana.” Waste Management 46 (December 2015): 15–27. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2015.09.009.

White, Peter, M. Dranke, and Peter Hindle. Integrated solid waste management: a lifecycle inventory. Springer Science & Business Media, (2012).

Battistelli, Danilo, Diana P. Ferreira, Sofia Costa, Carlo Santulli, and Raul Fangueiro. “Conductive Thermoplastic Starch (TPS) Composite Filled with Waste Iron Filings.” Emerging Science Journal 4, no. 3 (June 1, 2020): 136–147. doi:10.28991/esj-2020-01218.

Hassanpour, Malek. "Plastics Applications Materials Processing and Techniques." Plastic Surgery and Modern Techniques (2017).

Hammer, Jort, Michiel H. S. Kraak, and John R. Parsons. “Plastics in the Marine Environment: The Dark Side of a Modern Gift.” Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (2012): 1–44. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-3414-6_1.

Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP). Sources, fate and effects of microplastics in the marine environment: a global assessment, P.J. Kershaw, Editor., United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and International Maritime Organization (IMO): Nairobi. (2015): 96.

Koelmans, Bart, S. Pahl, Thomas Backhaus, Filipa Bessa, Geert van Calster, Nadja Contzen, Richard Cronin et al. “A scientific perspective on microplastics in nature and society.” Science Advice for Policy by European Academies (SAPEA), (2019): 176.

Kershaw, Peter John. "Marine plastic debris and microplastics–Global lessons and research to inspire action and guide policy change." United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP): Nairobi (2016): 252.

Edmondson, Steve, and Marianne Gilbert. “The Chemical Nature of Plastics Polymerization.” Brydson’s Plastics Materials (2017): 19–37. doi:10.1016/b978-0-323-35824-8.00002-5.

Freinkel, S. “A brief history of plastic’s conquest of the world.” Scientific American. (2011). Available online: http://scientificamerican.com/article/a-brief-history-of-plastic-world-conquest/ (accessed on 25 July 2020).

Andrady, Anthony L., and Mike A. Neal. “Applications and Societal Benefits of Plastics.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364, no. 1526 (July 27, 2009): 1977–1984. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0304.

Gilbert, Marianne. “Plastics Materials.” Brydson’s Plastics Materials, (Eighth Edition). Elsevier: Oxford (2017): 1–18. doi:10.1016/b978-0-323-35824-8.00001-3.

Giacovelli, Claudia. "Single-Use Plastics: A Roadmap for Sustainability." United Nations Environment Programme: Nairobi (2018): 90.

Geyer, Roland, Jenna R. Jambeck, and Kara Lavender Law. “Production, Use, and Fate of All Plastics Ever Made.” Science Advances 3, no. 7 (July 2017): e1700782. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1700782.

World Economic Forum, Ellen MacArthur Foundation, and McKinsey & Company. (2016). The new plastics economy: Rethinking the future of plastics. Available online: http//:newplasticseconomy.org/about/ publications (accessed on 25 June 2020).

European Bioplastics. “Bioplastics market data.” Available online: http://european-bioplastics.org/market/ (accessed on 28 July 2020).

StatsNZ (2017). Overseas merchandise trade datasets. Imports HS10. Available online: http://archive.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/industry_sectors/imports_and_exports/overseas-merchandise-trade/HS10-by-country.aspx (accessed on 28 July 2020).

Mayring, P. "Qualitative Content Anlysis [28 paragraphs]. Forum Qualitative Sozialforshung." In Forum: Qualitative Social Research [On-line Journal], vol. 1, no. 2. 2000.

Krippendorff, K. "Models of messages: three prototypes,[w:] Gerbner G., Holsti OR, Krippendorff K., Paisly GJ, Stone Ph. J.(red.)." The analysis of communication content, New York: Wiley. (1969).

Krippendorff, Klaus. “Reliability in Content Analysis.” Human Communication Research 30, no. 3 (July 2004): 411–433. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.2004.tb00738.x.

Clunies-Ross, P. "Plastics in the Environment: Te Ao Hurihuri–The Changing World Evidence Summary." (2019).

Barnes, David K. A., Francois Galgani, Richard C. Thompson, and Morton Barlaz. “Accumulation and Fragmentation of Plastic Debris in Global Environments.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364, no. 1526 (July 27, 2009): 1985–1998. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0205.

Derraik, José G.B. “The Pollution of the Marine Environment by Plastic Debris: a Review.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 44, no. 9 (September 2002): 842–852. doi:10.1016/s0025-326x(02)00220-5.

Gall, S.C., and R.C. Thompson. “The Impact of Debris on Marine Life.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 92, no. 1–2 (March 2015): 170–179. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.12.041.

Williams, Jim. “Resource Management and Maori Attitudes to Water in Southern New Zealand.” New Zealand Geographer 62, no. 1 (April 2006): 73–80. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7939.2006.00050.x.

Gregory, Murray R. “Environmental Implications of Plastic Debris in Marine Settings—entanglement, Ingestion, Smothering, Hangers-on, Hitch-Hiking and Alien Invasions.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364, no. 1526 (July 27, 2009): 2013–2025. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0265.

Ghansah, Benjamin, Gustav Komla Mahunu, Ernest Kwame Ansah, and B. B. Benuwa. "Impact of Pet Bottles Disposal and Management Mechanisms in Selected Urban Cities in Ghana." (2015): 1289–1297.

Chaurasia, Atul, and Mr Sumit Gangwar. "Reuse of Plastic Bottles as a Construction Material. (2019).

Dhage-Niranjan, P., Phodase R., Jambhale, S., “Plastic Bottles Used in Construction,” (2018): 1089–1096.

Safinia, Sina, and Amani Alkalbani. “Use of Recycled Plastic Water Bottles in Concrete Blocks.” Procedia Engineering 164 (2016): 214–221. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2016.11.612.

Mokhtar, M., Sahat, S., Hamid, B., Kaamin, M., Kesot, M. J., Wen, L. C., Xin, L. Y., Ling, N. P. and Jia Lei, V. S. (2016) “Appication of plastic bottle as a wall structure for green house,” ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci., vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 7617–7621.

Mansour, Ashraf Mansour Habib, and Subhi A. Ali. “Reusing Waste Plastic Bottles as an Alternative Sustainable Building Material.” Energy for Sustainable Development 24 (February 2015): 79–85. doi:10.1016/j.esd.2014.11.001.

Fataniya, Rakesh, Rihan Maaze, Kalpesh Kapadiya, and Vijay F. Pipalia. "Experimental Investigation of Concrete Masonry Units with Plastic Bottle Cores and PET Fibers." International Journal for Scientific Research & Development (IJSRD) 3, no. 04 (2015): 2321-0613.

Kamaruddin, M A, M M A Abdullah, M H Zawawi, and M R R A Zainol. “Potential Use of Plastic Waste as Construction Materials: Recent Progress and Future Prospect.” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 267 (November 2017): 012011. doi:10.1088/1757-899x/267/1/012011.

Gu, Lei, and Togay Ozbakkaloglu. “Use of Recycled Plastics in Concrete: A Critical Review.” Waste Management 51 (May 2016): 19–42. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2016.03.005.

Yin, Shi, Rabin Tuladhar, Feng Shi, Mark Combe, Tony Collister, and Nagaratnam Sivakugan. “Use of Macro Plastic Fibres in Concrete: A Review.” Construction and Building Materials 93 (September 2015): 180–188. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.05.105.

Jalaluddin, Mohammed. “Use of Plastic Waste in Civil Constructions and Innovative Decorative Material (Eco- Friendly).” MOJ Civil Engineering 3, no. 5 (December 4, 2017). doi:10.15406/mojce.2017.03.00082.

Raghuchandra, G., Vatsalya, C., Udit, B. D. and Smitha, G. P. “Investigating the Application of Plastic Bottle as a Sustainable Material in Building Construction.” International Journal for Scientific Research & Development 5, no. 5, (2017): 593-599.

Saxena, Shilpi, and Monika Singh. "Eco-Architecture: Pet Bottle Houses." International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology 2, no. 12 (2013): 1243-1246.

Ramadevi, K., and R. Manju. "Experimental investigation on the properties of concrete with plastic PET (bottle) fibres as fine aggregates." International journal of emerging technology and advanced engineering 2, no. 6 (2012): 42-46.

Froese, A. “Plastic bottles in construction. ECO-TEC.” (2001). Available online: https://www.instructables.com/id/New-Innovation-in-Construction-using-Waste-Plastic/ (accessed on 30 July 2020).

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2020-03091616


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Donald Kwabena Dadzie, Abdul K Kaliluthin, D Raj Kumar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.