Experimental Investigation of the Densification Properties of Clay Soil Mixes with Tire Waste

Davood Akbarimehr, Esmail Aflaki, Abolfazl Eslami


The annual increase in production of industrial wastes, including scrap tire, has created several challenges for societies. Incorporating the wastes as raw materials has been proposed in different industries, using waste tire as physical additives and investigating the geotechnical properties of this mixture can reduce the environmental pollution, as well as offering economic and technical benefits. Clay soils are abundant in southern regions of Tehran where scrap tire is also produced in large quantities every year. Therefore, provided the chance, incorporating these wastes into the soil mix is significant as regards both geotechnical properties and environmental considerations. As a fundamental means of investigation in construction activities, in particular road construction, the compaction test is useful in determining the maximum density and the optimum moisture content of the soil. In this study, considering that this research has not yet been investigated for Tehran clay and has environmental benefits while having engineering application, the optimum moisture content and maximum dry density of the clay mixed with two types of additives (waste tire powder and granules) at various mass fractions (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 20, and 30 wt%) using standard compaction tests were investigated. The results suggested that the variations of the optimum moisture content and the maximum dry density in both clay mixes demonstrate a certain and predictable trend as the waste content increases. In other words, by increasing the percentage of waste in the mixture, the optimum moisture content is increased, and this increase in the mixture of the tire powder and clay is more than granule and clay. In addition, by increasing the percentage of waste, the maximum dry weight of the mixture was reduced, and this reduction in the mixture of tire powder and clay is almost higher than that of tire granule and clay. Furthermore, relations were presented to estimate the maximum density and the optimum moisture content of the mix to be applied in practice.


Tehran Clay; Tire Powder; Tire Granule; Compaction; Geotechnical Properties; Environmental Geotechnics.


Thomas, Blessen Skariah, Ramesh Chandra Gupta, Pawan Kalla, and Laszlo Cseteneyi. “Strength, Abrasion and Permeation Characteristics of Cement Concrete Containing Discarded Rubber Fine Aggregates.” Construction and Building Materials 59 (May 2014): 204–212. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.01.074.

Kootahi, Karim, and Paul W. Mayne. “Closure to ‘Index Test Method for Estimating the Effective Preconsolidation Stress in Clay Deposits’ by Karim Kootahi and Paul W. Mayne.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 143, no. 10 (October 2017): 07017031. doi:10.1061/(asce)gt.1943-5606.0001765.

Akbarimehr, Davood, and Esmail Aflaki. “Site Investigation and Use of Artificial Neural Networks to Predict Rock Permeability at the Siazakh Dam, Iran.” Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology (November 5, 2018): qjegh2017–048. doi:10.1144/qjegh2017-048.

Kirsch, Klaus, and Alan Bell. “Ground Improvement, Third Edition” (November 28, 2012). doi:10.1201/b13678.

Huang, Yu, and Zhuoqiang Wen. “Recent Developments of Soil Improvement Methods for Seismic Liquefaction Mitigation.” Natural Hazards 76, no. 3 (December 21, 2014): 1927–1938. doi:10.1007/s11069-014-1558-9.

A, Sathwik, And Artisudam P. “Effect of Tyre Powder on Strength Characteristics of Red and Black Cotton Soil.” i-manager’s Journal on Civil Engineering 6, no. 4 (2016): 14. doi:10.26634/jce.6.4.8235.

Tortum, Ahmet, Cafer Çelik, and Abdulkadir Cüneyt Aydin. “Determination of the Optimum Conditions for Tire Rubber in Asphalt Concrete.” Building and Environment 40, no. 11 (November 2005): 1492–1504. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2004.11.013.

Cao, Weidong. “Study on Properties of Recycled Tire Rubber Modified Asphalt Mixtures Using Dry Process.” Construction and Building Materials 21, no. 5 (May 2007): 1011–1015. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2006.02.004.

Pacheco-Torgal, F., Yining Ding, and Said Jalali. “Properties and Durability of Concrete Containing Polymeric Wastes (tyre Rubber and Polyethylene Terephthalate Bottles): An Overview.” Construction and Building Materials 30 (May 2012): 714–724. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.11.047.

Shu, Xiang, and Baoshan Huang. “Recycling of Waste Tire Rubber in Asphalt and Portland Cement Concrete: An Overview.” Construction and Building Materials 67 (September 2014): 217–224. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.11.027.

Attom, Mousa F. “The Use of Shredded Waste Tires to Improve the Geotechnical Engineering Properties of Sands.” Environmental Geology 49, no. 4 (December 23, 2005): 497–503. doi:10.1007/s00254-005-0003-5.

Cabalar, A. F., and Z. Karabash. “California Bearing Ratio of a Sub-Base Material Modified With Tire Buffings and Cement Addition.” Journal of Testing and Evaluation 43, no. 6 (October 10, 2014): 20130070. doi:10.1520/jte20130070.

M. Neaz Sheikh, M. Mashiri, J. Vinod, H.-H. Tsang, Shear and compressibility behavior of sand–tire crumb mixtures, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 25(10) (2012) 1366-1374. doi:10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0000696.

D. Akbarimehr, E. Aflaki, Using Empirical Correlations to Evaluate the Compression Index of Tehran Clay, AUT Journal of Civil Engineering, (2018). doi:10.22060/AJCE.2018.14522.5482.

H. Trouzine, M. Bekhiti, A. Asroun, Effects of scrap tyre rubber fibre on swelling behaviour of two clayey soils in Algeria, Geosynthetics International, 19(2) (2012) 124-132. doi:10.1680/gein.2012.19.2.124.

P.G. Sarvade, P.R. Shet, Geotechnical properties of problem clay stabilized with crumb rubber powder, Bonfring International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management Science, 2(4) (2012) 27. doi:10.9756/bijiems.1671.

E. Kalkan, Preparation of scrap tire rubber fiber–silica fume mixtures for modification of clayey soils, Applied Clay Science, 80 (2013) 117-125. doi:10.1016/j.clay.2013.06.014.

F. Wang, W. Song, Effects of crumb rubber on compressive strength of cement-treated soil, in, De Gruyter Open, 2015. doi:10.1515/ace-2015-0036.

B. Tiwari, B. Ajmera, S. Moubayed, A. Lemmon, K. Styler, J.G. Martinez, Improving Geotechnical Behavior of Clayey Soils with Shredded Rubber Tires—Preliminary Study, in: Geo-Congress 2014, 2014. doi:10.1061/9780784413272.362.

G.S. Hambirao, P. Rakaraddi, Soil stabilization using waste shredded rubber tyre chips, IOSR J. Mech. Civ. Eng, 11 (2014) 20-27. doi:10.9790/1684-11152027.

G.G.D. Ramirez, M.D.T. Casagrande, D. Folle, A. Pereira, V.A. Paulon, Behavior of granular rubber waste tire reinforced soil for application in geosynthetic reinforced soil wall, Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais, 8(4) (2015) 567-576. doi:10.1590/s1983-41952015000400009.

C.H. Signes, J. Garzón-Roca, P.M. Fernández, M.E.G. de la Torre, R.I. Franco, Swelling potential reduction of Spanish argillaceous marlstone Facies Tap soil through the addition of crumb rubber particles from scrap tyres, Applied Clay Science, 132 (2016) 768-773. doi:10.1016/j.clay.2016.07.027.

M. Tajdini, A. Nabizadeh, H. Taherkhani, H. Zartaj, Effect of added waste rubber on the properties and failure mode of kaolinite clay, International Journal of Civil Engineering, 15(6) (2017) 949-958. doi:10.1007/s40999-016-0057-7.

P. Ravichandran, A.S. Prasad, K.D. Krishnan, P.K. Rajkumar, Effect of addition of waste tyre crumb rubber on weak soil stabilisation, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9(5) (2016). doi:10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i5/87259.

K. Mukherjee, A. Mishra, The impact of scrapped tyre chips on the mechanical properties of liner materials, Environmental Processes, 4(1) (2017) 219-233. doi:10.1007/s40710-017-0210-6.

J. Yadav, S. Tiwari, Effect of waste rubber fibres on the geotechnical properties of clay stabilized with cement, Applied Clay Science, 149 (2017) 97-110. doi:10.1016/j.clay.2017.07.037.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.28991/cej-2019-03091251


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Davood Akbarimehr, Esmail Aflaki

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.