Effect of Adverse Weather Conditions on Vehicle Braking Distance of Highways
The effect of adverse weather conditions on the safety of vehicles moving on different types of roads and measuring its margin of safety have always been a major research issue of highways. Determining the exact value of friction coefficient between the wheels of the vehicle and the surface of the pavement (usually Asphalt Concrete) in different weather conditions is assumed as a major factor in design process. An appropriate method is analyzing the dynamic motion of the vehicle and its interactions with geometrical elements of road using dynamic simulation of vehicles. In this paper the effect of changes of friction coefficient caused by the weather conditions on the dynamic responses of three types of vehicles: including Sedan, Bus, and Truck based on the results of Adams/car Simulator are investigated. The studies conducted on this issue for different weather conditions suggest values ranging from 0.04 to 1.25. The results obtained from simulation based on Adams/car represent that the friction coefficient in values of 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6 do not effect on braking distance significantly and it is possible to attribute them all to dry weather condition. However, as it was anticipated the values of 0.5, 0.4, 0.28 and 0.18 have significant differences in braking distance. Hence, the values of 0.5, 0.4, 0.28 and 0.18 can be attributed to wet, rainy, snowy and icy conditions respectively.
By US state .Icy road fatalities. (2008.2009.2010). “Icy Road Fatality Statistics” http://icyroadsafety.com/fatalitystats.shtml (June.26.2016) .
US Dept. of Transportation (2005-2014). “Weather-Related Crash Statistics” . (23 June, 2016).
AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation officials. “A policy on geometric design of highways and streets, Washington”, D.C. USA 20001). (2011).
AASHTO (Association of State Highway and Transportation officials). “A policy on geometric design of highways and streets”, Washington, D.C. USA. (1965).
NCHRP400 (National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report). “Determination of Stopping Sight Distances”. Transportation Research Board, Washington DC. (1997).
NCHRP 108 (National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report). “Guide for Pavement Friction”. Transportation Research Board, (February 2009).
Kordani, A.A., Molan, M.A. “The Effect of Combined Horizontal Curve and Longitudinal Grade on Side Friction Factors”, KSCE Jour., 19(1), (2015): 303-310. DOI: 10.1007/s12205-013-0453-3.
Univ. South Carolina. Contemporary College Physics. (2001), “The Friction of Automobile Tires”. . (2 june 2002).
Falero, V.J., “Development and evaluation of a virtual test environment for vehicle models with road friction estimator”, thesis, Univ. Pontificia Comillas. Madrid. 2013, Pages 76-91.
Hippi M, Juga I, Nurmi P. “A statistical forecast model for road surface friction.” InSIRWEC 15th International Road Weather Conference, Quebec City, Canada (February 2010): pp. 5-7.
Siril Y, Askar K, Dougherty M. “Expert system to calculate the coefficient of friction-an approach to enhance traffic safety.” InCybernetics and Intelligent Systems, 2004 IEEE Conference on 2004 Dec 1 (Vol. 2, pp. 803-808). IEEE. DOI:10.1109/ICCIS.2004.1460691.
Mubarak W. Al-Grafi, Mostafa K. Mohamed, Farhan A. salem,“Analysis of Vehicle Friction Coefficient by Simulink/Matlab”. International Journal of Control, Automation and System. 2013 Jul; 2(2).
Wallman, C.G., Åström, H.. Friction measurement methods and the correlation between road friction and traffic safety: A literature review, Statens väg-och transportforskningsinstitut (2001).
Patra N, Datta K. Observer Based Road-Tire Friction Estimation for Slip Control of Braking System. Procedia Engineering [Internet]. Elsevier BV; 2012; 38:1566–74. DOI:10.1016/j.proeng.2012.06.192.
Wallman, C.G., Wretling, P., Öberg, G. “Effects of Winter Road Maintenance”, State-of-the-Art, Statens väg-och transportforskningsinstitut (1997).
Tong C, Li T. “Car Driving Safety Analysis in Rainy and Snowy Weather Based on ADAMS/Car.” CICTP 2015, American Society of Civil Engineers; 2015 Jul 13. DOI:10.1061/9780784479292.266.
PIARC (Permanent International Association of Road Congresses). “Road Safety Manual”,C13, (2003).
You-Qun Zhao, Hai-Qing Li, Fen Lin, Jian Wang, Xue-Wu Ji. “Estimation of Road Friction Coefficient in Different Road
Conditions Based on Vehicle Braking Dynamics. ” Chin. J. Mech. Eng. (May 2017):982–990. DOI 10.1007/s10033-017-0143-z.
Yang JD, Chen YK, Shi Q, Li YM, Wang FC, Zhu L. Variable Speed Limits on Circular Curved Road Sections under Various Weather Conditions. InCICTP 2015 2015 Jul (pp. 3242-3253), DOI: org/10.1061/9780784479292.302.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2018 Omid Rahmani
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.