Effect of Cyclic Loadings on the Shear Strength and Reinforcement Slip of RC Beams

Mohammed A Sakr


Numerous studies of the response of reinforced concrete members under cyclic loadings, many of which have been summarized and have indicated that, in general, the flexural strength of under-reinforced beams remains unimpaired under cyclic loadings consisting of a reasonable number of cycles. However, there is a body of evidence indicating that their shear strength may suffer under such loadings. The first objective of the current study is to construct an accurate 2D shell finite element model of reinforced concrete beams under cyclic loadings. The second objective is carrying out a parametric study on reinforced concrete beams, using the suggested 2D shell model.  The objective of this study was to observe the effect of the stirrup spacing, steel-to-concrete bond properties on the performance of reinforced concrete beams under cyclic loadings. For this purpose, an efficient and accurate finite element model was established taking into account the compression and tensile softening introducing damage in the concrete material, the Baushinger effect using nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening in the steel and an adequate bond-slip law for the concrete–steel interface. The simulated results of numerical models were verified by experimental results available in literature in order to validate the proposed model, including hysteretic curves, failure modes, crack pattern and debonding failure mode. The model provided a strong tool for investigating the performances of reinforced concrete beam. The results showed that: Cyclic loadings may change the failure mode of the beam to bond failure even though it has sufficient bond length to resist static loadings. So that under cyclic loadings additional anchorage length must be taken, cyclic loadings also influence the ductility and peak load for beams fail in shear. All these topics are of the utmost importance to RC behaviour to be considered by construction codes.


Finite Element Models; Reinforced Concrete Beams; Damage; Plasticity; Cohesive Model; Cyclic Behavior.


Du Beton, Comite Euro-Internationale. “Elements under Cyclic Loading: State of the Art Report.” Tomas Telford, London, UK (1996): n. pag. Print.

Crambuer, R., B. Richard, N. Ile, and F. Ragueneau. "Experimental characterization and modeling of energy dissipation in reinforced concrete beams subjected to cyclic loading." Engineering Structures 56 (2013): 919-934. Print.

Jin, Liu, Xiuli Du, Dong Li, and Xiao Su. "Seismic behavior of RC cantilever beams under low cyclic loading and size effect on shear strength: An experimental characterization." Engineering Structures 122 (2016): 93-107. Print.

Tavakoli, H. R., S. Mahmoudi, A. R. Goltabar, and P. Jalali. "Experimental evaluation of the effects of reverse cyclic loading rate on the mechanical behavior of reinforced SCC beams." Construction and Building Materials 131 (2017): 254-266. Print.

Dazio, Alessandro, Davide Buzzini, and Martin Trüb. “Nonlinear Cyclic Behaviour of Hybrid Fibre Concrete Structural Walls.” Engineering Structures 30.11 (2008): 3141–3150. Print.

Aref, Amjad J, and Kiarash M Dolatshahi. “A Three-Dimensional Cyclic Meso-Scale Numerical Procedure for Simulation of Unreinforced Masonry Structures.” Computers & Structures 120 (2013): 9–23. Print.

Ashtiani, M Soleymani et al. “Cyclic Beam Bending Test for Assessment of Bond--Slip Behaviour.” Engineering Structures 56 (2013): 1684–1697. Print.

Rteil, Ahmad, Khaled Soudki, and Timothy Topper. “Mechanics of Bond under Repeated Loading.” Construction and Building Materials 25.6 (2011): 2822–2827. Web.

Hibbitt, Karlsson. “Sorensen, Inc. ABAQUS Theory Manual.” 2000: n. pag. Print.

Gan, Youai. “Bond Stress and Slip Modeling in Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures.” University of Toronto, 2000. Print.

Shi, Yongjiu, Meng Wang, and Yuanqing Wang. “Experimental and Constitutive Model Study of Structural Steel under Cyclic Loading.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research 67.8 (2011): 1185–1197. Print.

Shi, Gang et al. “Experimental and Modeling Study of High-Strength Structural Steel under Cyclic Loading.” Engineering Structures 37 (2012): 1–13. Print.

Chaboche, Jean-Louis. “Time-Independent Constitutive Theories for Cyclic Plasticity.” International Journal of Plasticity 2.2 (1986): 149–188. Print.

Chaboche, Jean-Louis. “Constitutive Equations for Cyclic Plasticity and Cyclic Viscoplasticity.” International journal of plasticity 5.3 (1989): 247–302. Print.

Abdulridha, Alaa et al. “Behavior and Modeling of Superelastic Shape Memory Alloy Reinforced Concrete Beams.” Engineering Structures 49 (2013): 893–904. Print.

ATC, A T C. “24, Guidelines for Cyclic Seismic Testing of Components of Steel Structures.” Redwood City, CA: Applied Technology Council (1992): n. pag. Print.

Saenz, L P. “Equation for the Stress-Strain Curve of Concrete.” ACI J 61.9 (1964): 1229–1235. Print.

Jankowiak, Tomasz, and Tomasz Lodygowski. “Identification of Parameters of Concrete Damage Plasticity Constitutive Model.” Foundations of civil and environmental engineering 6.1 (2005): 53–69. Print.

Full Text: PDF


Copyright (c) 2017 Mohammed A Sakr

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.