Influence of Parameters the Wall on Reinforced Soil Segmental Walls
The behaviour of retaining walls in geosynthetic reinforced soil is complex and requires studies and research to understand the mechanisms of rupture, the behaviour of the reinforcements in the soil and the behaviour of the main elements of the system: reinforcement-wall-soil. Several researches have been done on the use of geosynthetics as backfill massive reinforcement material (experimental studies, numerical analysis, reduced models ...). This parametric study was conducted to investigate the influence of numerical parameters of the wall which confront us in the projects, on the behaviour of walls on reinforced soil segmental walls. A 3.6m high wall is composed of modular blocks of earth sand reinforced with four geogrids layers was modelled. The properties of materials, the wall geometry, and the boundary conditions will be explained later. The finite difference computer program FLAC3D was used in this study. The results of this numerical study allowed to deduce the importance of each parameter of the wall selected for the behaviour of retaining walls in soil reinforced by geogrid. The inclination of wall "W" is of great importance for the calculation of retaining walls in modular blocks and can provide an important contribution to the horizontal balance of this type walls. The value of lateral displacements of the facing tends to continuously decrease with the increase of "W". More the wall is inclined plus the horizontal stresses behind the wall and values of the tensile stress in the layers of geogrid "T" decrease in an expressive manner. The dimensions of modular blocks (types) and the mechanical characteristics of modular blocks (category) have a remarkable effect on the calculation of retaining walls in modular blocks reinforced with layers of geogrid.
a] Bathurst, R. J, and Hatami, K, Review of numerical modeling of geosynthetic reinforced soil walls, Invited theme paper. Proc. Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics: 10th Int. Conf. of the Int. Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics, Balkema, Rotterdam. The Netherlands, Vol. 2, (2001): 1223–1232.
b] Bathurst, R. J, and Hatami, K, Development and verification of a numerical model for the analysis of geosynthetic reinforced soil segmental walls under working stress conditions. Can. Geotech. J., 42(4), (2005): 1066–1085.
a] Rowe, R.K, and Ho, S.K, Some insights into reinforced wall behaviour based on finite element analysis. In Earth Reinforcement: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Earth Reinforcement. Fukuoka, Kyushu, Japan, 12–14 November 1996. Edited by H. Ochiai, N. Yasufuku, and K. Omine. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Vol. 1, (1996) : pp. 485–490.
b] Rowe, R.K, and Ho, S.K, Horizontal deformation in reinforced soil walls. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. 35(2). (1998): 312–327.
Gotteland, Ph, Gourc, J.P, and Villard, P, Geosynthetics reinforced structures as bridge abutments: full scale experimentation and comparison with modelisations. In International Symposium on Mechanically Stabilized Backfill, Denver, Colo.,6–8 February 1997. Edited by J.T.H. Wu. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. (1997): pp. 25–34.
Bathurst, R. J, and Karpurapu R, Behaviour of geosynthetic reinforced soil retaining walls using the finite element method Computers and Geotechnics 17, (1995): 279-300.
Ling, H.I, Tatsuoka, F, and Tateyama, M. Simulating performance of GRS-SW by finite-element procedure. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 121(4), (1995) : 330–340.
Ling, H.I, Cardany, C.P, Sun, L.-X, and Hashimoto, H, Finite element study of a geosynthetic-reinforced soil retaining wall with concrete-block facing. Geosynthetics International, 7(3), (2000) : 163–188.
Hatami, K, Bathurst, R.J, and Di Pietro, P, Static response of reinforced soil retaining walls with non-uniform reinforcement. International Journal of Geomechanics, ASCE, 1(4) (2001): 477–506.
Biondi, G, Maugeri, M, and Carrubba, P, Numerical modeling of a geogrid reinforced wall. In Proceedings of EuroGeo 2, the 2nd European Geosynthetic Conference, Bologna, Italy, 15– 18 October2000. Edited by A. Cancelli, D. Cazzuffi, and C.Soccodato. Vol. 1, (2000) : pp. 207–212.
Ho, S.K, Rowe, R.K, Effect of wall geometry on the behaviour of reinforced soil walls. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 14, (1996) : 521-541.
Walters, D. L, Allen, T. M, and Bathurst, R. J, Conversion of geosynthetic strain to load using reinforcement stiffness. Geosynthet. Int. 9 (5–6), (2002) : 483-523.
Yogarajah, I, and Andrawes, K.Z, Modelling construction effects in polymeric grid reinforced soil walls. In Proceedings, 5th International Conference on Geotextiles, Geomembranes and Related Products, Singapore, 5–9 September 1994. Edited by G.P. Karunaratne, S.H. Chew, K.S. Wong, and S.A. Tan. Vol. 1, (1994) : pp. 177–182.
Cardoso, A.S, and Lopes, M.L, The influence of the construction method on the behaviour of geosynthetic reinforced soil walls -a numerical study. In Earth Reinforcement: Proceedings of the International Symposium Of Earth Reinforcement, 12–14 November 1996, Kyushu, Japan. Edited by H. Ochiai, N. Yasufuku, and K. Omine. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Vol.1. (1996): pp, 351–355.
Karpurapu, R. G, and Bathurst, R. J, Behaviour of geosynthetic reinforced soil retaining walls using the finite element method. Comput. Geotech., 17(3), (1995) : 279–299.
Nakane, A, Yokota, Y, Taki, M, and Miyatake, H, FEM comparative analysis of facing rigidity of geotextile-reinforced soil walls. In Earth Reinforcement: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Earth Reinforcement, Fukuoka, Kyushu, Japan, (1996): 12–14.
Chungsik Yoo, Hyuck-Sang Jung, Measured behavior of a geosynthetic-reinforced segmental retaining wall in a tiered configuration. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 22; (2004): 359–376
Chungsik Yoo, Sun-Bin Kim., Performance of a two-tier geosynthetic reinforced segmental retaining wall under a surcharge load: Full-scale load test and 3D finite element analysis. Geotextiles and Geomembranes 26, (2008): 460–472.
Bingquan Huang; Richard J. Bathurst; and Kianoosh Hatami, M.ASCE, Numerical study of reinforced soil segmental walls using three different constitutive soil models, journal of geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering ASCE, ISSN 1090-0241/10 (2009): 1486–1498.
Abdelkader, A, Dias, D, Freitag, N, Numerical analysis of the behaviour of mechanically stabilized earth walls reinforced with different types of strips. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 29. (2010): 116-129.
Bingquan Huang; Richard J. Bathurst; and Kianoosh Hatami. Numerical study of the influence of block interface stiffness on reinforced soil segmental walls of variable height. OttawaGeo (2007)
Feifan Ren, Feng Zhang, Chao Xu, Guan Wang. Seismic evaluation of reinforced-soil segmental retaining walls. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 44, Issue 4, (2016) 604-614.
Huabei Liu, Xiangyu Wang, Erxiang Song. Reinforcement load and deformation mode of geosynthetic-reinforced soil walls subject to seismic loading during service life. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 29, Issue 1, (2011) : 1-16
G. Madhavi Latha, P. Santhanakumar. Seismic response of reduced-scale modular block and rigid facedreinforced walls through shaking table tests. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 43, Issue 4, (2015) : 307-316
Syed Mohd Ahmad, Deepankar Choudhury. Seismic internal stability analysis of waterfront reinforced-soil wall using pseudo-static approach. Ocean Engineering, 52, (2012): 83-90
NCMA, Design Manual for Segmental Retaining Walls, second ed. National Concrete Masonry Association, Herndon, Virginia, USA. (1997) : 289 pp.
FHWA, Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls and Reinforced Soil Slopes, Design and Construction Guidelines. Federal Highway Administration Publication N°.FHWA-NHI-00-043.US Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. USA. (2001) : 418 pp.
Zornberg, J, Leshchinsky, D, Comparison of international design criteria for geosynthetic reinforced soil structures. In: H. Ochiai, J. Otani, N. Yasufuku, K. Omine (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Symposium on Earth Reinforcement, Vol. 2, Kyushu, Japan. (2001): pp. 1095–1106.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2017 BAAZIZ Salah Eddine
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.